“Deep History” Genealogical Research with 37-Marker and 111-Marker STR Testing: Studying “Crowder” and “Martinez” Relationships

Two months ago I posted an essay on use of y-dna genetic testing to further “deep history” genealogical research [Using y-dna testing in “deep family history” research].

As a follow-up to that discussion, I will provide two examples of very different y-dna test results for further study.

The Surname Martinez

The first example is an American of Mexican descent, Mr. Martinez, who had taken the 37-marker STR test, and was surprised to find himself placed in Haplogroup I1 M253 . His family has contacted me for advice.

I believe that there are historical reasons not to be surprised that a male whose ancestors likely resided in either England, Normandy or Scandinavia for the last thousand years or so would be related to a person whose ancestors likely resided in Spain in the distant past. I can think of possible scenarios where that would occurred even within historic times, perhaps in the past millennium.

However, the relationship (a father with sons who were respectively my ancestor and that of Mr Martinez) may be considerably more distant in the past than the previous millennium.

Even though I have taken the 111-marker test, I have come to believe, confirmed by the opinions of y-dna research experts with whom I correspond, that the 37-marker test is a good first step in determining the y-dna haplogroup.

The next step for someone who finds himself assigned to haplogroup I1 M253 as a result of the 37-marker test is to confirm that truly this is his haplogroup.

That confirmation can take place through testing the major SNPs associated with it, starting with SNP DF29. It is my understanding that Mr Martinez’ family is pursuing that next step. As we get more information we will pursue the questions as to how we might be related, however distantly.

The Surname Crowder

The second example is a person who has taken the 111- marker STR test (as I have) and is listed by ftdna.com as having a Most Recent Common Ancestry estimated at five generations back.

Previously I had identified persons who share my seemingly rare y-dna profile – Haplogroup I1 M253, positive for SNPs DF29, Z58 and Z59, but negative for SNPs Z60, Z2041 and CTS8647 – as having the names Saunders, Crump and Kerley, with the additional case of men named Burnett who were descended (as I am) from three brothers born in Bedford County, Virginia between 1806 and 1811 of a man whose ancestors were surnamed Saunders, rather than Burnett.

A person surnamed Crowder who was shown to have a Most Recent Common Ancestor within the last two or three centuries was unexpected.

I have increasingly abundant reasons to conclude that my own y-dna ancestors lived in Virginia from the mid-17th century on, and before that in Southern England – Gloucestershire, Dorsetshire, Surrey, perhaps Cambridge, and elsewhere – and likely had done so likely since the Middle Ages.

My first response was to see if there is any association of Crowders and the other three surnames (Saunders, Crump and Kerley) in either Virginia or Southern England.

First, from my own previous postings on vikingsandvirginians.com [see 17th Century Saunders, Crump and Kerley Immigrants to Virginia], I found only the following:

In 1654, Nicholas Merywether sponsored 43 persons – two of whom were EDWARD SAUNDERS and THOMAS CROWDER – to be transported to Westmoreland County, Virginia.

However, through cursory research I have found at least a dozen incidents of persons surnamed Crowder and Saunders who were married or were residing in localities where families surnamed Crowder and Saunders intermarried or were otherwise closely associated. Obviously, further research is needed.

Of immediate interest is the fact that the Crowder surname is associated with Bedford County, Virginia, where the generations between my paternal grandfather and my paternal great-great-great grandfather lived) and with the Quakers (a religion followed by many of my ancestors).

Crowders were also associated with my Quaker ancestor elsewhere in Virginia, including Quakers named Johnson, one of my ancestral surnames, and Hatcher, a surname also ssociated with my family history.

I will post an essay that updates my current thoughts on my confirmed and probable ancestors residing in Bedford County in the first decade of the 19th century soon.

For those who might wish to contact me on these or other family history subjects, use the e-mail address ffvsearch@yahoo.com.


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Using y-dna testing in “deep family history” research

The popularity of “family history shows” has coincided with the creation of  an industry offering genetics testing for genealogical research. One product offered by this industry is testing “y-dna”, in which genetic information is passed from son to son.

The information provides insights into movement of men (and, by inference, their wives and daughters) through the hundreds of thousands of years of human evolution.

In limited, but important, circumstances, the y-dna tests can help in genealogical research, but how they can help is often misunderstood.

On this website, we explore and attempt to reconstruct the family history of a number of families, each of whom is descended from Europeans, particularly families from England, France,  Germany and Scandinavia.

There are two areas of y-dna research that have our attention. The first is the strong possibility, for which evidence continues to mount, that we have identified a line of fathers and sons involved in mercantile activities and seafaring, perhaps stretching back a millenium or more, whose surnames in the current generation are Saunders, Crump, Kerley and Burnett (the latter through the circumstances of three illegitimate sons whose father was almost certainly surnamed Saunders).

Another area relates to another, completely different male y-dna line, surnamed Carter, where the genealogical evidence suggests concerted mercantile and other economic activity, beginning possibly in 16th century Gloucestershire in England, and more certainly was in place in the 17th century Gloucestershire, the English port of Bristol, and Virginia.

Much information already exists on this website, but much more can and will be added.

At present we are particularly interested in connecting with persons who have information on men of y-dna haplogroup I1, M-253, whose SNP testings indicates they are positive for SNP Z-59 and negative for SNP Z-60. For more information, contact me at ffvsearch@yahoo.com.

William Burnett

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David Bair (1799-) Botetourt, VA




DAVID BAIR Botetourt County VA Federal Census 1 Male over 26 White 1 Female between 15 and 26 No slaves.


DAVID BEAR Botetourt County VA Federal Census 1 Male Between 5 and Under 10; 2 Females Under 5; 1 Female 5-10. No slaves.


DAVID BARE Botetourt County VA Federal Census 1 Male 5 through 10, 1 Male 15 through 20, 1 Female under 5, 2 Females 5-10, 2 Females 10-15, 1 Female 15-20, 2 Females 20-30.


2 January ANN BAIR, daughter of DAVID BAIR, Botetourt VA, marries MORTIMER OAKS.


DAVID BAIR Botetourt County VA Federal Census. Listed as Farmer, married, age 51 (born 1799). Wife listed as MARY BAIR, son Henry, daughter Barbara, son George, at home.

October 14 Rice T. Oaks, brother of MORTIMER OAKS, marries Susan Bear, daughter of DAVID BEAR in Botetourt County, VA.


DAVID BAIR Floyd County VA Federal Census Listed as Miller, married, living with wife MARY BAIR, son William (age 15, adopted)

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Rice T. Oaks (c.1828-1887), Albermarle County, VA; Hamblen County, TN


Rice T(homas) Oaks, son of RICE OAKS and PATIENCE SUDDARTH, born in Albemarle County, VA 17 May 1828


Rice T. Oaks in Botetourt County VA 1850 census, boarding with farming family, occupation carpenter

Marries Susan Bair, daughter of David Bair of Botetourt County, VA on 14 October 1850. Susan Bair is the sister of Ann Bair who married MORTIMER OAKS in 1849.


27 April Sister Elizabeth A. Oaks married Isaak Minnick, Montgomery County, VA Father RICE OAKS SR


May 31 Daughter (unnamed) Oaks Bedford County VA. Father listed Ri T Oaks and Susan. Child listed as “white”.


6 October child born to Rice T. Oaks and Susan, Daughter Amanza F. Oaks in Bedford County, VA


James R Oaks 16 August born in Floyd County, VA Father R Oaks Mother S Oaks


25 October 1860 Thomas C. Oaks born in Montgomery County VA Father Rice T. Oaks Mother Susan


Son Edwin Oaks, August (no date) in Montgomery County, VA. Father Rice T. Oaks, mother Susan.


14 February Mollie Lewis Oaks (Fellows) born in Hamblen County, TN Died 12 September 1823 in Morristown, Hamblen County. Father R T Oaks of Virginia and mother Bair of Virginia.


Brother Mortimer Oaks (second marriage to) Fannie R. Holderby, daughter of Joseph Holderby and Martha W. Holderby, Rockingham County, NC


25 February James R. Oaks marries Cornelia C. Mees in Hamblen County TN


Father Rice Oaks 27 August 1877; Buried at Russellville Cementary, Hamblen County, Tennnesse; along with son Rice T Oaks and his wife, Susan.


8 August Rice Thomas Oaks marries Julia Van Husen. He was Age 55 born 1828 She was 45 born 1838. Married in Hamblen County TN


Rice T. Oaks dies 18 July. Buried in cemetary, Hamblen County, TN

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Who Might Have Come to the Christening of Giles Carter in Cirencester?: A Speculative Essay

I suspect that a number of genealogists and family historians would generally agree with my opinion that a close study of 17th century wills, legal documents and various vital statistics records in Gloucestershire England could yield insights into the English immigration into Virginia in the 17th and 18th centuries.

That sentiment expressed, I will concede that sometimes that newly discovered or interpreted documents can disrupt widely held beliefs. A case in point is that of Gyles Carter of Gloucestershire and Giles Carter, an immigrant to Virginia who lived and died on Turkey Island in the James River, in the area of Richmond [See my timeline at Giles Carter (1634-1701) of Henrico County (Turkey Island).

To this day, some family histories identify Giles as the son of Gyles and through Gyles’ father and mother-in-law a long lineage of celebrated Englishmen and Normans.

The discovery of a small plaque in a Gloucestershire church memorializing Gyles and his wife Elizabeth Tracy as a childless couple created much confusion.

Subsequently, there surfaced the parish record of the  christening of a Giles Carter (who without question had both  a son and a grandson  named Theodoric) whose Gloucestershire dates matched dates imputed from Virginia records, thereby convincing many researchers that the correct lines of descendancy had been identified.

THe interior of Saint John the Baptist Church in Cirencester, Gloucestershire, England

The interior of Saint John the Baptist Church in Cirencester, Gloucestershire, England

A record of a Giles Carter being transported to Virginia (apparently when he was between 16 and 19 years of age), living and working on, marrying a girl named Hannah, and later dying on Turkey Island seemed convincing that Cirencester Giles became Turkey Island Giles in his teenage years.

Even so, the “case” for Cirencester Giles becoming Turkey Island Giles involves speculation, and, even more so, speculation surrounds such issues as to what Giles did on Turkey Island and who were Hannah’s parents.

Some who have wrestled with this question have concentrated on several documents, particularly passages in wills granting Giles and Hannah substantial gifts.

In each of these cases attempts have been made to impute some insight from how the language was phrased conferring the gifts and bequests into conclusions about Giles and Hannah’s employment, socioeconomic status, even their political leanings.

I think for the time being, we need more information, or need new strategies for analyzing what we already know, to move ahead.

My intention is to try an intellectual exercise, with no preconceived idea of what we might learn from it. The exercise will be to try to reconstruct a christening ceremony for the infant Giles of Cirencester, which presumably would have taken place at the imposing Saint John the Baptist Church, and to figure who in Gloucestershire might have been invited to it.

In attempting to collect some information on what each of these persons were doing at the time and whether there were matters with which any of the guests were wrestling in 1635 that would be useful to consider.

Anyone who has suggestions or information that would be relevant to this intellectual exercise, please contact me at ffvsearch@yahoo.com.


Alexander Gregory, at this time is minister of St John the Baptist in Cirencester (which five years later King Charles I will recognize as underfunded, and will order the Bishop of Gloucester to install Gregory as Rector with proper funding and support. Gregory was, however, a supporter of the Parliament (as was much of Cirencester) and was imprisoned by Prince Rupert seven years later.

Guests of Honor

1) Theodore Carter, infant Giles Carter’s father. His first child Mary was baptized 26 October 1633. Three more daughters would be born afterward: Joane (2 Apr 1637), Elizabeth (24 Feb 1638), Margery (2 Dec 1641).

St Andrew Church in Cold Aston, restored in 1875, although West Tower is medieval; resized image of a Philip Halling photograph, from goegraph.org.uk.

St Andrew Church in Cold Aston, restored in 1875, although West Tower is medieval; resized image of a Philip Halling photograph, from goegraph.org.uk.

2) Gyles Carter, eldest son of John Carter of Netherswell. Gyles Carter is age 51 (calculated from a plaque in Cold Aston dated 1664 establing Gyles’ age as 80 at that time.) Gyles married Elizabeth Tracy, daughter of Sir Paul Tracy,  in 1606. Fifteen years earlier (1620) Gyles Carter travelled on the ship Supply, of whose outfitting Sir Paul Tracy was a financier, and on which four of his relatives were passengers, sailed to Jamestown, but  Gyles returned to Gloucestershire.

[WHB Note: Joy Carter Johnstone, a long-time Carter researcher, in 2007 posted his copy of a inscription on a plaque that is on the walls of the church in Cold Aston, where Gyles Carter’s manor was located. Guests 2 through 5 are all referenced on the Cold Aston plaque. Zieman’s copy appears below:

“Anno Dom 1664-Giles Carter the eldest son of John Carter of Netherswell
Co. of Gloucester, Esq. his two brothers being John Carter of Charlton Abbots
and William Carter of Bressnorton in Oxford married Elizabeth the daughter of
Paul Tracye of Standwell and DIED WITHOUT ISSUE.” Capitalization is Johnstone’s.]

3) Elizabeth Tracy Carter, Gyles Carter’s wife of 29 years (no children). Elizabeth was one of 21 children of Sir Paul Tracy. That she did not accompany Gyles Carter on the Supply might suggest that Gyles was assessing the prospects for Virginia enterprises, rather than intending to stay permanently. Four of Elizabeth’s Tracy relatives did take part in the voyage of the Supply and one, Joyce, with her husband, Nathaniel Powell, perished in Indian Massacres that took place there.

Charlton Abbots manor (right) and farm buildings. Reconstruction of a manor, originally built by Carter family. Only two gables are original.

Charlton Abbotts manor (right) and farm buildings. Reconstruction of a manor, originally built by Carter family. Only two gables are original. Photo by Philip Halling, as part  of the Geograph Britain Creative Commons

4a) John Carter, Gyles Carter’s brother of Charlton Abbotts. He and wife Ann are parents of the deceased Mary (Carter) Slaughter, wife of  the deceased John Slaughter, gent.; and Alice (Carter) Clarke, wife of Thomas Clarke of Charlton Abbotts

4b) Ann Partridge (Partriche) Carter, John Carter’s wife of 24 years

xxxx) William Carter, Gyles Carter’s brother, residing in Bressnorton in Oxford  [WHB-Brize Norton, Oxfordshire?]

[WHB – Subsequently, Ms Elizabeth Viney of Don, Tasmania, brought to my attention to following historical record “Mr William Carter of Brisenorton was slaine by one Jacob Byshopp, a stranger, in the street in the towne of Burford and was buried in the church of Burford”. That murder took place in 1627/8 and therefore William Carter must be removed from the list of possible guests at the christening.  See My Speculations on the 1635 Christening in Cirencester: A Response from Tasmania.]

However, in his place , Ms Viney names two other Carter relatives:

5a) Eleanor Carter Colles, daughter of John and Ann Partridge Carter.

5b) Humphrey Colles, son-in-law of the late John Carter and of Ann Partridge Carter.

[That a Carter daughter was married with someone with the same name as Humphrey Colles (1510?-1571), knighted by Catholic Queen Mary and member of parliament for Somerset during the reign of Mary I, suggests another line of research.]

The names of other Gloucestershire residents in 1635  known to have had or who arguably might have had some tie with Theodor and Giles Carter before, after, or at the time of the Christening will be added to this post.

Posted in CARTER | Comments Off on Who Might Have Come to the Christening of Giles Carter in Cirencester?: A Speculative Essay

My Speculations on the 1635 Christening in Cirencester: A Response from Tasmania

Earlier, as in attempting to gain insights in the relationships between several Gloucestershire (England) ancesteral families with ties to Virginia, I speculated on who might have come to the christening of GILES CARTER in Cirencester in 1635.

I received the following reply from Elizabeth Viney of Don, Tasmania. My belief is that her response will open up a new line of inquiry. The new line is unexpected (but, of course, the purpose of that speculative essay was to learn new things.)

In a subsequent post, I will explore the vestry book of Petworth Parish in Gloucester, County, Virginia to study the relationships – to begin with – of the families surnamed Carter, Colles and Stubblefield. (We will also look for relationships with families surnamed Saunders, Kerley, Crump and Crewes.)

Elizabeth Viney’s Letter:

From: Elizabeth Viney <yineve64@gmail.com>‪To: ffvsearch@yahoo.com

Sent: Monday, July 27, 2015 3:21 AM

Subject: Giles Carter

‪Greetings William!

‪I came across your blog in my own research into family history, also being a descendant of the Carters. My own ancestor is Eleanor Carter, a sister of the Giles mentioned in the Cold Aston plaque. She married Humphrey Colles.

‪I read with interest your recent post about the christening of Giles Carter of Cirencester and believe I can fill you in on what some of the special guests may have been up to!

‪Sadly, William Carter of Brize Norton would have not attended the family celebration, at least in his corporeal form! He was involved in an incident in the town of Burford, Oxfordshire and in the words of parish priest who kindly included it in the register “Mr William Carter of Brisenorton was slaine by one Jacob Byshopp, a stranger, in the street in the towne of Burford and was buried in the church of Burford”.

He was buried on the 28th Feb 1627/28. His will is dated the same day and he is described as being “near death and wounded in bodie, but of sound and perfect mind.” His wife Bridget was granted probate in April 1628. They had two young children, Edward and John.

‪Interestingly, William’s son John Carter was also killed in Burford. The parish register reveals he died ‘of a wound received in a duel with one Mr Slaughter, gent.’ in January 1648. I wonder if this Mr Slaughter was a son of Mary Carter? I haven’t looked into this so that is purely speculation!

‪None of that really advances the story re Giles Carter any further but I thought you might be interested. It makes it all seems so very real and human.

‪Kind regards, Elizabeth Viney, (Don, Tasmania, Australia).

 My response to Ms Viney:

‪Dear Elizabeth –

‪Your information adds important detail to the Carter family story. It adds genealogical details that you have found to our family story.

‪This is exactly why I believe creating “speculative historical events” in an attempt to figure out who may be where at a point in time can help organize the genealogical data that is known.

‪I’m considering adding another “speculative event” – say, a party at the Tracy manor around 1619 planning the trip to the New World.

‪I have a couple of thoughts. First, I would like for you to allow me to post your letter (without your name, if you would prefer) about William Carter.

‪Second, I would like to help those of us working on these 17th century Gloucestershire families by adding details to what we know or think we might know.

‪Would you be willing to do this?

‪I’m so happy to have heard from you.

‪Cordially, Bill

‪William Burnett


Mrs Viney’s Subsequent Response:

‪Thanks for your reply Bill.

‪I am more than happy for you to post my story about William Carter and include my name. It is one way of building a network of people who are researching in the same area. If we all have different pieces of the jigsaw we won’t see the picture until we can put some of them together!  I would certainly love to be part of any sharing of information about the Gloucestershire families, as this area is of great interest to me and is very prominent in my own genealogical research.

I actually only stumbled across the William Carter information by chance as I was reading through transcriptions of the Burford registers on another family line. The name and place jumped out at me as names that I was sure I had in my data already. Sure enough, it was our William and a darn good story to boot! I can only assume that the family had business interests or property in Burford and that is why he was there.

Are you happy for me to include a link to your blog on my own blog. I only started it recently as a way to organize my own thoughts and also in the hope of finding other people with an interest in some of the same family lines as me.

I do have one question for you. How do you see the connection between the Theodore Carter of Cirencester and the other Carters in your speculative, and may I say delightful, scenario?

‪Looking forward to any future correspondence; I am more than happy to contribute anything I can.

‪Kind regards,


Posted in CARTER | Comments Off on My Speculations on the 1635 Christening in Cirencester: A Response from Tasmania

Giles Carter (1634-1701) of Henrico County (Turkey Island)

Note from WHB (May 17, 2015, Seoul, Republic of Korea)  

The Turkey Island Virignia highway sign

The Turkey Island Virignia highway sign

My last previous post regarding Giles Carter of Henrico County VA dated  January 5, 2012 (with some recent annotations. [See Return to Turkey Island: Giles Carter (1634-1700) Henrico County, VA.]

This current post begins a discussion of my (our) current thinking about Giles Carter of Henrico County, VA. Some of this is reflected in a letter to my research colleagues:

“I think we are beginning (or, at least, are on the verge of beginning) to get some deeper insights into what was going on in 17th century Virginia as it relates to some particular families on which we have spent some of our time researching.

“My sense is that we should get a better understanding of what was going on on Turkey Island in Henrico County in the 17the century, before the Randolph family (another one of my ancestral lines, by the way, having the distinction of being the earliest known (to me) mother in my maternal line of mother’s mother’s mother’s etc.) began building its 18th century mega-mansion.

“Giles Carter, whose progeny (son Theodoric with many siblings) is undisputed, is considered by all researchers known to me to have been born in Gloucestershire England. Everything else is a matter of dispute with some very sophisticated arguments to advance each theory as to from whom he descended and who he married or to discredit other theories on those subjects.

“Giles Carter may well have been a teenage indentured servant, with relatives, at least by marriage, of royal descendency. If so, his indenture occurred a few years, perhaps a decade, before a pair of Saunders (cited by Justin) came over to America.

“(There is a difference between the indentures of Giles Carter and the Saunders which I suspect we will find is important. Giles’ indenture conformed to a policy of the Cromwell’s Commonwealth. The Saunders came over when Cromwell’s associates were being hanged for high treason.)

“Now let me share with you my (current) radical thought. The Carters, Saunders, Crumps, Crewes, Sewalls et al. were involved in dynastic strategies (maybe not a monolithic strategy, but several strategies that collectively looked out for the economic interests and sought to secure economically viable positions for the younger members of the “clans”).

“That “indentured service” or “apprenticeship” positions were not lower class stable boys persuaded to trade years of labor for passage over to the new world, but devices by which the sovereign power granted subsidies (land for numbers of  indentured servants transported from England to America).

“The Merchant-Venturers of Bristol, who had suffered under the English Civil War, considered the tobacco of Virginia a game-changing event. If that is so, why not exploit the sovereign’s deal to grant land in Virginia in exchange for passage of “servants” to America.

“I am proposing that we re-examine the research on the 17th century immigration to Virginia in a new light. That we take with a grain of salt all 21st century explanations of what 17th century terms mean – indentures, land for passage of servants, even dowries and bequests.

“Instead, we consider the 17th century settling of Virginia as the concerted exploitation of “new lands” involving the sovereign power and a select number of families that have achieved power and influence over the centuries and are determined to exploit the situation to their advantage.

A corollary to the above argument of “concerted action by mercantile families” suggests that we consider wills and property transactions not just from the standpoint of nuclear families as we are used to thinking in the 21st century, but as sometimes (often?) part of dynastic strategies.

This is a timeline of documents relating to GILES CARTER.


24 APR 1635 GILES CARTER, son of Theodor Carter, Christening:  Cirencester, Gloucestershire, England


7 Apr 1653 – Virginia Land Office Patents No. 3, 1652-1655, p 192 – William Fry, 750 acres near the head of Chickahominy River, on the southwest side. Beg.g at Fleets Quarter, including a small Indian field, “being due unto the said William Fry – transportation of fifteen persons into this Colony…” First listed of fifteen is Giles Carter.

[The complete list consists of: GILES CARTER, Ralph Spendlowe, Jane Walker, Miles Noble, Anne Williams, William Brooke, Ralph Burton, Andrew Miller, Alice Archer, Willilam Hoccadie, William Fry’s wife, his three children and himself.]


May 1, 1662. John Rowen of Henrico Co. willed to Giles Carter a cow and the use for one year of a house and land on Rowen’s Turkey Island estate.
[John Rowen was the stepfather of John Price III and Daniel Price, having married the widow of John Price, Jr. Daniel Price received a suit from the will of James Crews in 1676, and married Susannah, daughter of Giles Carter, in about 1691. Daniel Price died in about 1692; and Susannah married secondly Thomas Williamson.] One of the witnesses of this will was Margaret CREWS, daughter of Daniel LLEWELLYN and considered by some to have been the wife of James CREWES; if so, she must have died before 1676. Henrico Records p 229


10 Dec 1677 Giles CARTER brings the will of Capt. James CREWS, dec’d, to Court p 143 (Index to Colonial Records [D&W] 1677-1692, Vol. 1, p 30)


30 Apr 1679 Under “an act for the defence of the country against the incursion of the Indian Enemy” a tithe was levied to fit out men, horses, and arms. Giles CARTER of Turkey Island was listed with 6 tithes. (Order Book & Wills 1678-1693, pp 38/39) p 143
[This poll tax included the taxpayer, his sons, and his servants.]


Apr 1680 Deposition of Giles CARTER, aged about 46. p 143 (Order Book & Wills 1678-1693, p 57)


28 Feb 1684 William COCKE recorded a deed for land sold to Giles CARTER. On Turkey Island Mill Run beginning at upper beaver dam

24 Aug 1684 – “Wm. RANDOLPH of Varina Parish, Henrico Co. Gent. from Giles CARTER & Hannah(X), his wife, of Parish & C. afsd. 20 pounds strl., 60 a. which was by the last will & testament of Capt. James CREWES (dated, 23 AUG 1676) given unto sd. Giles & Hannah CARTER being part of ye dividend of land or plantation at Turkey Island of which sd. Crewes died seized, wch. Tract of land or plantation is since purchd. by sd. Wm. Randolph of ye heir & exor. of Sd. Crews, decd. as by conveyance dated 24 Augt 1684. Recd. 1 April 1685 Vol. 3, p 1380 6
(Henrico Co. Records 1677-1691, p 302)
[The Avant book (p 145) gives the date as 25 Feb 1684/5, and says 50 acres.

25 Aug 1684 William RANDOLPH acquired the entire 500-acre plantation from the heirs of James CREWES in exchange for “three acres and fifteen pounds of lawful money of England.”
(Henrico Co. Records 1677-1691, p 303) Vol. 3, p 1380 6


15 Mar 1685? Deed from Wm. COCKE to Giles CARTER for 59 acres, between Wm. COCKE and his brother Jno. p 145 5

15 Mar 1685? Deposition of Robt BULLINGTON as to a game of dice in which Giles CARTER won 500 lbs. of tobacco from Chas.STEWARD p 1

4 Feb 1686 Upon the petition of Giles CARTER, one of ye surveyors of the highways, that he is ancient, weak and sickly and therefore uncapable of performing his sd. office. It is ordered that he be released and discharged from ye same. p 149 5
(Henrico Co Colonial Records, Vol. 2, p 229)
[He would have been 52 years of age if he was born in 1634]

1 Jun 1686 Payments to Giles CARTER as his legacy from the estate of James CREWES, dec’d p 146
(Henrico Co. Colonial Records [D&W] 1677-1692, Vol 1, p 369)


1 Jun 1687 The will of Wm. Humphrey decd. proved by oath of Capt. Wm. RANDOLPH,a witness thereto; & order for probat thereof granted Margarett, wife of Maurice FLOYD, ye Exectrx. therein named. Robt. POVALL & Jno.WATSON enter themselves securities. Giles CARTER, John ANOT, Robert POVALL & Danl. PRICE appointed appraisers of sd.estate. p. 1299

June 1, 1687. Certificate granted to Giles Carter for 800 acres of land for the importation of 16 persons.

There is no dispute that GILES CARTER of Turkey Island, Henrico County, Virginia, was the father of THEODORIC CARTER, my ancestor, and other offspring. Virtually everything else about him  – his birthplace, birthdate, parents, wife, wife’s parents, and Giles’position in Virginia society is in dispute.

Some of the disputes have been hinted at in a previous post and its subsequent notes [See ]


August 1, 1694. Giles Carter, Senr. acknowledged a conveyance of 550 acres of land unto John Cocke. Hannah acknowledged her Right of Dower.

August 1, 1694. Giles Carter and Theodorick Carter [father and son] witnessed a deed of Richard Cocke, Jr. of Charles City County to Thomas Williamson of Henrico County.


GILES CARTER’S DEATH BEF 02 FEB 1701/02 in Varina Parish, Henrico, Virginia, USA 4

2 Mar. 1701. Theodorick Carter, of Henrico Co. conveys to John Pleasants of same, for 10-000 lbs. tobo. and cask, 50 acres in Henrico Co. whereon said Carter dwells on N. side of James River, in place known as the Low ground adjoining land of said Carter ‘s father Giles Carter, decd. running along Turkey Island Run, and given said Carter by his father Giles Carter (Ibid. 270)

2 Mar. 1701 . John Pleasants, Henrico Co. to Theodorick Carter, same Co. for 10-000 lbs. tobo. and cask, conveys 75 acres on S. side of Chickahominey Swamp on place known as the Round Hills (Ibid. 271)

In the name of God, Amen, I Giles Carter, Sr., being of a weak and infirmed body, yet (blessed by God) of a sound and perfect memory, and considering the frailty and uncertainty of man’s life, and not knowing the time of my departure of life;
I do make, constitute, and appoint this my last will and testament hereby revoking all other wills by me heretofore made whatsoever.
Imprimis, I commend my soul into the hands of my Blessed Redeemer Jesus Christ, relying only upon his merits for salvation. My body I commit to the earth to be decently therein interred and for what worldly goods and possessions God hath bestowed upon me, it is my will and desire they may be disposed of in form and manner following:

I give and bequeath to my son Theodorick Carter five shilling sterling to be paid by my dear wife Hannah either in silver or to the full value thereof as to her shall seem most convenient.

Item. I give to my daughter Susanna, now Wife of Thomas Williamson, five shilling sterling to be paid as above said.
Item. I give and bequeath to my daughter Mary, now Wife of Thomas Davis, five shilling sterling to be paid as above said.
Item. I give to my daughter Ann, now the wife of James Davis, one feather bed and bolster, one rug, one blanket, and one cow.
Item. I give to my son Giles one mare called Nanny with her increase forever, it being a mare formerly given to him by William Sewell, she then being but a filly.

These legatees being paid and also any debts however shall be lawfully by me indebted being fully satisfied, it is my will and desire that what of my estate shall remain (one feather bed and furniture only excepted for my wife Hannah which I give unto her), may be equally divided to five parts, the one part whereof to belong to my wife Hannah, the other to my son Giles, it not being my intent or design in any way to hereby disannul or make void a deed of gift formerly by me made to my son Giles and entered upon record. But, I do by this, my last will and testament, reaffirm and confirm the same.

Item. It is my will and design that what estate shall appertain to my son Giles that he may retain the land where he shall arrive on by age of eighteen years and also enjoy the benefit of his labor. My wife Hannah not being any wise molested or disturbed upon the plantation we now live upon during her life.

and lastly, I make constitute and appoint my dear and loving wife Hannah full and sole executor of this my last will and testament, the which I own to be my last, all others being hereby disannulled and made void. As witness my hand and seal this 14th day of December 1699.

Giles (seal of red wax) Carter.
Signed, sealed, and delivered in presence of us: Thomas Smythes, William Sewell, James Davis.
Henrico Co., February 2, 1701.
Proved in open court by the oaths of the subscribed witnesses to be the last will and testament of the subscribed Giles Carter.
James Cocke, County Clerk.
(Henrico Co., Virginia, Records, p. 256)

December 10, 1701. John Cocke sold 550 acres to Thomas Williamson. The land was described as a parcel sold to Cocke by Giles Carter, Sr.


February 2, 1702. Hannah Carter granted probate of the will of her husband Giles Carter.
(Henrico Co., Virginia, Records, p. 279)


7 Jan. 1711, John Pleasants, Henrico parish and Co. for 5000 lbs. tobo. conveys to Giles Carter same parish and county, 94 acres in same parish and county S. side Chickahominey Swamp

Posted in CARTER | Comments Off on Giles Carter (1634-1701) of Henrico County (Turkey Island)

Selected Entries from an Index of 16th and 17th Century Gloucestershire Wills



The following index of Gloucestershire (England) wills is part of a digitizing process that took place in 2014. I have selected ancestral names and related names contained in that index for further






Saunders, John [abode not given]

Holy Trinity Church Badgeworth, GLoucestershire

Holy Trinity Church
Badgeworth, GLoucestershire

Gloucestershire Wills 5

Crump, John, Badgworth [Badgeworth] [1545]

[Badgeworth is a village in the Tewkesbury district of Gloucestershire, between Gloucester and Cheltenham. Holy Trinity, Badgeworth is set in countryside . The older part of the church is an architecturally ornate early 14th century aisle with ball-flower moulding, considered to be the best example of the medieval decorated style in Gloucestershire.]

Gloucestershire Wills 6

Crumpe, Philip [1545?]

Crump, James, Westbury [1546]

Crump, Roger, Westbury [1546]

Gloucestershire Wills 8

Crumpe, John, Rodley, Westbury [1548]

Wikipedia describes Rodley in Gloucestershire as “a settlement in Westbury-on-Severn parish, Forest of Dean District, Gloucestershire, England. It lies to the south east of Westbury-on-Severn, surrounded on three sides by a loop of the River Severn”

[See my discussion of Westbury-on-Severn and the religious dissent ther at Quakers in Gloucestershire and Other Possible Ties with New Kent County VA.]

A map of the Severn River, showing locations of Bristol, Gloucester and Cheltenham. Westbury-on-Severn is a red dot at the Northeast curve of the Severn.

A map of the Severn River, showing locations of Bristol, Gloucester and Cheltenham. Westbury-on-Severn is a red dot at the Northeast curve at the Severn’s source.

[See also my quote from “Albion’s Seed”, Y-Chromosome “MRCAs”, and Clues Found in Gloucestershire  “Note also that in the town of Westbury-on-Trym, to the North of the seaport town of Bristol in Gloucestershire (mentioned in the Armourer’s documents in 16th Century Gloucestershire, elsewhere on this website) resides the Saunders family.”]

[See also the reference “The king’s liberty of the duchy of Lancaster which extended within the hundreds of Bledisloe, Westbury [and] Botloe.; Huntley: John Stratford: 19s 4d.” in Miscellaneous Documents from Early 16th Century Gloucestershire

Gloucestershire Wills 12

Crumpe, William, Chursden, c. [1547] [Churston Court was a 12th century manor in Gloucestershire.]

Saunders, William, Bradwell [Broadwell] [1547]

A 12th century Norman frieze in the market town of Broadwell, Gloucestershore

A 12th century Norman frieze at Saint Paul’s Church  in the market town of Broadwell, Gloucestershore

[Broadwell is a village and civil parish in the English county of Gloucestershire. It is about 1.5 miles (2.4 km) north of Stow-on-the-Wold. (From wikipedia.com]

From Richard Tracy (1501-1569) Stanway, Gloucestershire, U. K., “A Military Survey of Gloucestershire (1522), excerpts by WHB: Slaughter Hundred; Broadwell: John Carter 20 lbs., p.88; Upper Slaughter: Richard Tracy 10 sh., p.96″

Saunders, John, Avening [1548]

Doorway of the Church of the Holy Cross in Avening

Doorway of the Church of the Holy Cross in Avening

[From British History Online: “The ancient parish of Avening, two miles north of Tetbury, comprised two detached portions separated by a small area of Cherington parish: the larger, western portion, containing the village of Avening, part of Nailsworth, and the hamlets of Forestgreen and Windsoredge was elongated in shape, stretching for seven miles from the Inch brook on the northwest to near the Tetbury-Cirencester road on the south-east.”]

Saunders, John, Avening (inv.) [1548]

Gloucestershire Wills 16

Saunders, Agnes, Bradwell (Broadwell) [1551]

Dursley, an 1879 painting by Edward Smith now in GLoucester Museum.

Dursley, an 1879 painting by Edward Smith now in GLoucester Museum.

Crewes, Thomas, Dursley [1551]

[Dursley is a market town under the North East flank of Stinchcombe Hill, and about 6 km South East of the River Severn. Dursley gained borough status in 1471 and lost it in 1886.]

Saunders, Giles, Uley [1552]

[Uley is situated in a wooded valley in the Cotswold escarpment, between Dursley and Stroud. During the Industrial Revolution, the village was renowned for producing blue cloth.]

Crumpe, James, Rodley, Westbury [1552]

Gloucestershire Wills 21 

Saunders, Thomas, Ashleworth [1555]

A Norman window set in a older Saxon door in parish church of Sts Andrew and Bartholomew, Ashleworth,

A Norman window set in a older Saxon door in parish church of Sts Andrew and Bartholomew, Ashleworth,

[Ashleworth is a village in the Tewkesbury district, about six miltes north of Gloucester.  The oldest part of the village is Ashleworth Quay, on a flood plain on the west bank of the River Severn.

An ancient ferry, which used to link Ashleworth Quay to Sandhurst village on the east bank of the river closed in the 1950s. In medieval times the Quay was a major crossing point for the river as the flood meadows here are narrower than they are for many miles upstream. Consequently, Ashleworth would have been the last place from which to cross before reaching the outskirts of Tewkesbury, nearly eight miles upstream.

Near the Quay is the ancient parish church of Saints Andrew and Bartholomew, the Manor, the Court, the historic Tithe Barn and the Boat Inn which has been run by the Jelf family for nearly 400 years.

The village was mentioned in the Domesday Book (1086), at which time it was called Escelesworde, which translates loosely as Aescel’s farmstead, or enclosure. After the Norman Conquest the manor was held by the Earls of Berkeley,  but in the 12th century Robert Fitzharding, the earl at that time, gifted Ashleworth to St Augustine’s Abbey, Bristol. Henry VIII  later gave the manor to the Bishop of Gloucester. [Infro from wikipedia.com.]

Saunders, Thomas, Tewkesbury [1555]

An illustration of the Battle of Tewkesbury (1471) from an old illustration

An illustration of the Battle of Tewkesbury (1471) from an old illustration

[See the following notation, quoting www.cotswold.info cited at Ancestral Families and the Colonial Trade (1633-1637)“It was during the 16th and early 17th centuries that the area around Winchcombe was extremely poor , it was during this period that a family named Tracy established themselves at Toddington, the eldest son Sir John Tracy became involved with a John Stratford who was related to him by marriage, they set up a business together to grow tobacco in the area, with plantations at Toddington and Bishops Cleeve. “Tobacco was widely grown on the Cotswolds, the Vale of Tewkesbury and in an area which extended as far south as Wiltshire.

[See also Richard Tracy (1501-1569) Stanway, Gloucestershire, U. K. “According to the History of Parliament: [O]n 15 Jan. 1533, shortly before setting out for London to attend the fifth session [of Parliament] (which began on 4 Feb.) [RICHARD TRACY] wrote, presumably from Gloucestershire, to an unamed friend, recounting the sotry and promising to explain the situation to [Thomas] Cromwell who, he had heard, was commissioned to investigate. Whether Cromwell was brought into the affair, or whether, as some versions suggest, even the King took it up, does not appear.

“Cromwell was of assistance to Tracy in other spheres and helped him to obtain several properties and leases: on 16 Feb., during the fifth session, the abbot of Tewkesbury agreed to the minister’s suggestion to grant him the manor of Stanway, which immediately became his home. Tracy’s name appears in several of Cromwell’s memoranda, and it is evident that the two men were close.”

From Gloucestershire Documents: Medieval Manors and Estates Associated with Carters and Related Families, Part 1, quoting the Victoria History of Gloucester, v. 8, p. 223 “In 1086 there were 12 servi and ancillae on the 5-hide estate at Oxenton belonging to the Tewkesbury manor, and the demesne was cultivated with 5 teams (40) (40) Dom. Bk.(Rec. Com.) i 163v.”

[WHB Note: An examination of the children of Sir Paul Tracy and his wife Anne Shakerley yeilds the informaiton that the 11th child, born 1602, was a male given the name “Saunders Tracy”. The child did not survive infancy, but the name appears to confirm that the Tracy and Saunders [and also Carter] families had close relationships.]

Saunders, Thomas, Maisemore [1555]

A view of the Severn from Maisemore Bridge (from the photograph.org/uk project

A view of the Severn from Maisemore Bridge (from the photograph.org/uk project

[Maisemore is 2.5 miles northwest of Gloucester on the west bank of the River Severn.  There is a church, dedicated to St Giles.]

Sanders, John [1556]

Gloucestershire Wills 22

Saunders, Alice, Maisemore [1557]

Carter, William, Broadwell [1557]

Gloucestershire Wills 28

Saunders, Hugh, Maisemore [1558]

Saunders, John, Stow [1558]

The Eagle and Child Pub of Stow-on-the-Wold, said to be nearly 1100 years  old (dating from 947)

The Eagle and Child Pub of Stow-on-the-Wold, said to be nearly 1100 years old (dating from 947)

[Stow-on-the-Wold is a small market town situated on top of an 800 ft (244 m) hill, at the convergence of a number of major roads through the Cotswolds, including the Fosse Way. The town was founded as a planned market place by Norman lords to take advantage of trade on the converging roads. Fairs have been held by royal charter since 1330 and an annual horse fair is still held on the edge of the town.]

Gloucestershire Wills 29

Saunders, John, Cirencester [1558]

The following is extracted from the wikipedia.com article on Cirencester: “At the Norman Conquest the royal manor of Cirencester was granted to the Earl of Hereford, William Fitz-Osborne, but by 1075 it had reverted to the Crown. The manor was granted to Cirencester Abbey, founded by Henry I in 1117 . . . The manor was granted to the Abbey in 1189, although a royal charter dated 1133 speaks of burgesses in the town.

“The struggle of the townsmen to prove that Cirencester was a borough, and thus gain the associated rights and privileges, probably began in the same year . . .

Castle Street in Cirencester

Castle Street in Cirencester

Sheep rearing, wool sales, weaing and woolen broadcloth and cloth-making were the main strengths of England’s trade in the Middle Ages, and not only the abbey but many of Cirencester’s merchants and clothiers gained wealth and prosperity from the national and international trade. The tombs of these merchants can be seen in the parish church, while their fine houses of Cotswold stone still stand in and around Coxwell Street and Dollar Street. Their wealth funded the rebuilding of the nave of the parish church in 1515-30, to create the large parish church, often referred to as the “Cathedral of the Cotswolds”. Other wool churches can be seen in neighbouring Northleach andChipping Campden.]

I wrote extensively on Cirencester in Giles Carter (1634-1700) Henrico County, VA,

Gloucesterhire Wills 30

Saunders, John, Cirencester [1558]

Gloucestershire Wills 31

Saunders, Roger, Cirencester [1558]

Saunders, Thomas, city of Gloucester [1558]

An interior of Gloucester Cathedral

An interior of Gloucester Cathedral

[The following is extracted from wikipedia.com: “King Henry II granted the first charter in 1155, which gave the burgesses [of Gloucester] the same liberties as the citizens of London and Winchester, and a second charter of Henry II gave them freedom of passage on the River Severn. The first charter was confirmed in 1194 by King Richard I.  The privileges of the borough were greatly extended by the charter of King John (1200), which gave freedom from toll throughout the kingdom and from pleading outside the borough.

In the Middle Ages the main export was wool which came from the Cotswolds and was processed in Gloucester; other exports included leather and iron (tools and weapons). Gloucester also had a large fishing industry at that time.

Saunders, William, city of Gloucester [1558]

Gloucestershire Wills 32

Crumpe, William, Leckhampton [1558]

A bay window at Leckhampton Court

A bay window at Leckhampton Court

[The following was extracted from wikipedia.com “Leckhampton is a district in south Cheltenham. . . .The old village of Leckhampton stands at the foot of Leckhampton Hill, around the medieval parish church of St Peter’s. . . Leckhampton Court is a mediaeval manor house dating from about 1320, built by the Giffard family of Brimpsfield.”

Gloucestershire Wills 35

Crumpe, John, Tyriey [Tirley] [1560]

The parish church in Tirley.

St Matthew parish church in Tirley.

[TIRLEY (St. Matthew), a parish, in the union of Tewkesbury, partly in the Lower division of the hundred of Westminster, and partly in that of the hundred of Deerhurst, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 8 miles (N. by E.) from Gloucester. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.]

Gloucestershire Wills 39 

Crumpe, Agnes, Westbury [1563]

Saunders, Wilham, Witcombe [1563]

Crompe, Elizabeth, Westbury [1567]

Gloucestershire Wills 54

Sewell, John, Stroud [1573]

[Stroud is amarket town, situated below the western escarpment

Saunders, William, Gloucester [1571]

Gloucestershire Wills 59

 Saunders, Thomas, Bledington [1574]

[In my post Winchcombe and the Benefactors of Henry VIII’s Dissolution of the Monasteries, I referred to Bledington as one of the revenue-producing properties of Winchcombe Abbey.]

[According to wikipedia.com, “Bledington is a village . . . about four miles south-east of Stow-on-the-Wold [and is on] the River Evenlode . close to the  Gloucestershire-Oxfordshire boundary . . .]

Saunders, Margery, Maisemore [1574]

Gloucestershire Wills 69

 Crompe, John, Rodley Wes[t]bury [1579]

Gloucestershire Wills 70

 Crumpe, Thomas, Wes[t]bury [1579]

Carter, William, Arlingham [1579]

[Arlingham (St. Mary The Virgin) is  1½ mile (S. E. by E.) from Newnham. The parish church is St Mary The Virgin. The town  is situated on a nook of land formed by a curvature of the Severn, by which river it is bounded on three sides, and across which is a ferry to Newnham .There is a place of worshipfor Wesleyans.]

Gloucestershire Wills 71

Crewe, Peter, Titherington [Tytherington] [1580]

Crompe, John, Leckhampton [1580]

1581 Gloucestershire Wills 72

Crumpe, John, Tirley [1581]

Crewe, Isabel als. Eliz., Titherington [Tytherington] [1581]

Crewe, Edmund, Deilham [1583]

Drew, Crew, Thomas, Alderley [1583]

[Alderley (also previously known as Alderleigh[) is a village about fourteen miles southwest of Stroud and two miles south of Wotton-under-Edge. ]

Crew, John, BItton [1583]

Gloucestershire Wills 82 

The parish church in Hartpury

The parish church in Hartpury

Saunders, John, Hartpury [1587]

[Hartpury is a . . . village [that] is about 5 miles (8 km) north of Gloucester.]

Sewell, Walter, Bisley [1593]

Crewe, Joan, Kingscote [1593]

Crumpe, Silvester, Westbury [1595]

Gloucestershire Wills 83

Crewe, Thomas, Marshfield [1597]

Crumpe, Richard, Whittington [1599]

Gloucestershire Wills 105 1599-

Crumpe, John, Westbury [1599]

Gloucestershire Wills 118 

Cromp, Jane, Westbury [1606]

Gloucestershire Wills 120 

Crompe, Giles, Naunton [1607]

A dovecote in Naunton

A dovecote in Naunton

[In my post Miscellaneous Documents from Early 17th Century Gloucestershire I quoted “The Hundred of Kiftesgate (pp. 77- Nauntone: Whereof Sr John Tracy knight is lord.; Todington: Whereas Sr John Tracy knight is lord. Smith, John, Men and Armour for Gloucestershire in 1608, Alan Sutton, 1980, p.85.”

Saunders, John, Bledington [1607]

[In my post Winchcombe and the Benefactors of Henry VIII’s Dissolution of the Monasteries, I referred to Bledington as one of the revenue-producing properties of Winchcombe Abbey.]

Gloucestershire Wills 126

Saunders, John, Great Badminton [1611]

[BADMINTON, GREAT (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Chipping, Upper division of the hundred of Grumbald’s-Ash, W. division of the county ofGloucester, 6½ miles (E. by N.) from Chipping-Sodbury. The roads from Cheltenham and Cirencester to Bath unite here.]

Gloucestershire Wills 127

Crumpe, James, Rodley in Westbury [1611]

 Gloucestershire Wills 128 1612

Ayres, Ann, proved at Gloucester [1612]

Saunders, Eleanor, Maisemore [1612]

Gloucestershire Wills 131

Saunders, John, Tewkesbury [1613]

Gloucestershire Wills 133

^Carter, Giles, Arlingham [1614]

[Arlingham is a village near Stroud. It occupies a peninsula on a sharp bend in the River Severn.]

Crewe, John, Hawkesbury [1615]

[In my post,Giles Carter (1634-1700) Henrico County, VA, I wrote heir were two Families of Carter’s from Gloucestershire that shared similar Names, The Carter’s of Arlingham and the Carter’s of Badgeworth , Charleton Abbots, Lower Swell , Neather Swell and Cirencester and Cheltenham and Blockley. I have wills of Several of these Carter’s but I am searching for a link to Early Virginia that would connect Carter’s here to the families in Gloucestershire.]

Gloucestershire Wills 138?

Sanders, Richard, parson of Daglingworth [1616]

Crumpe, William, Westbury [1616]

Sewell, Robert, Rodborow  [1616]

Gloucestershire Wills 140

Crumpe, Henry, Gloucester [1617]

Gloucestershire Wills 141

Crumpe, William, Gloucester [1617]

Gloucestershire Wills 143 1619

Crumpe, Edward, Church Stanway [1617]

Saunders, George, Avening [1619]

Gloucestershire Wills 147

Crumpe, William, Badgeworth [1620]

Gloucestershire Wills 149

Crumpe, Henry, Westbury [1622]

Gloucestershire Wills 150? 1623 

Carter, William, Arlingham [1623]

Gloucestershire Wills 155 

Sanders, William, Cirencester [1625]

Ayre, William, Arlingham [1625]

Ayres, John, Gloucester [1625]

Carle, Ann, Wickwar [missing]  [1626] 

Gloucestershire Wills 157

t Ayers, Alice, Gloucester, pr. 1628

Ayers, Alice, Gloucester [missing]

Crumpe, Elizabeth, Gloucester [1628]

Crumpe, John, Gloucester [1628]

Crumpe, Elizabeth, Address not give [1630]

Waterman ah. Saunders, John [1630]

Carter, Joyce, Bitton [1631]

Sewell, Thomas, Nether Lippiott [1631]

Gloucestershire Wills 167

Sanders, Thomas, Maisemore [1632]

Gloucestershire Wills 168

Saunders, Mathew, Tirley [torn] [1632]

Sewell, Thomas, Bisley [1632]

Sewell, Thomas, Nether Lippiot [1633]

Volume of 1634-35

Saunders, John, Moreton Valence [1634]

Gloucestershire Wills 172

Oakes, Thomas, Wotton-under-Edge [1634]

Crewe, Mathew, Combe [missing] [1635]

Crewe, William, Alderly, gent. [1635]

Crewe, Walter, Frampton-on-Severn [1636]

Gloucestershire Wills 177

Crumpe, Thomas, Gloucester [1637]

Crew, William, Cromhall [1637]

Greyhurst als. Saunders, John [1637+]

Gloucestershire Wills 178

Saunders, John, Tirley [1638]

Saunders, Richard, Horsley [1638]

Sawnders als. Grayhurst, Redigo [1638]

Crumpe, Arthur, Werley, Westbury [1639]

[Note that 70 years later in 1710, the mariner Abraham Saunders of Westbury-on-Trym with an estate of 66 pounds was listed as 19th of the top 25 17th century Bristol area mariners, each of whose probate was betwee 50 and 975 pounds. Source: E. and S. George (1988) Guide to the Probate Inventories of the Bristol Deanery.]

Gloucestershire Wills 181

Okes, John, Wotton-under-Edge, linen draper [1639]

Carter, Walter, Arlingham [1639]

Sewell, Walter, Lippiott [1639]

Crumpe, Margaret, Lydney [1640]

Saunders, Lithew, Berkeley [1640]

Gloucestershire wills 190

Carter, William, Arlingham [1644]

Crew, Arthur, Hawkesbury [missing] [1639]

Ayres, Thomas, Newnham [1645]

Sewell, John, Bisley [1646]

Crew, Joan, Wotton-under-Edge [1647]

Crew, Richard, Wickwar, Tanner [1650]

Posted in GLOUCESTERSHIRE DOCUMENTS | Comments Off on Selected Entries from an Index of 16th and 17th Century Gloucestershire Wills

William Saunders of Ewell (1502-1571)

The following information was compiled by Justin Sanders:


William Saunders, 1502-1571, born at Ewell, Surrey County, England; son of Henry Saundres (1456-1519) Joan Lepton. Known siblings: Nicholas, 1488-1549; Agnes, 1501-1530; Margaret, 1504; Cornelia.

Quote of Lord Burgley (William Cecil) regarding William Saunders: “He managed to retain high office through troublous times by being a willow, not an oak.” (p. 119). “William Saunders is perhaps the most impressive of all figures in our family history . . . if measured by the accumulation of wealth and attainment of political position.” (p. 120).


Both parents died in 1519 when William was seventeen years of age. Management of his affairs fell to his uncle, Nicholas Saunders of Charlwood, a Jesuit priest. “. . . by about age twenty, he entered the Inner Temple, obtaining a degree in law, as family members before him had done and as those following William would also do.” (p. 120).

Entered adulthood a wealthy young man, inheriting the Manor of Battailes, properties at Ebbesham and Chessington, the Three Crowns Inn of Southwark and “an array of properties in souther Surrey subsumed under Pendall Manor.” (p. 120).1


Married Joan Marston about 1529, the daughter of William Marston and Nicholas Mynne. William Saunders’ wardship of five Mynne stepchildren cemented long term relationships with the Mynne family. (p. 121) “William Marston, Joan’s father, held the Manor of Shalford, a submanor of the Manor of Ewell, and to this marriage Joan brought two properties then in her possession, the Manor of Horton in Ebbesham and the Manor of Brettgrave.

William once commented on ‘my lady’s grant of Somerset in Ashstead,’ suggesting he gained some interest in this property near Ewell by about 1530.” (p. 121). Known children of William Saunders & Joan Marston: Nicholas, 1532-1587. Erasmus, 1534-1603. Mary, 1536-1613. Urithe, 1538-1600. (p. 108). – 1530’s, practicing law; gained a seat in Parliament. (p. 122) –1536, added more property by acquiring a lease for land in Gosborough Hill Wood, part of the Manor of Chessington-at-Hoke;

Parliament begins closing doors of small Catholic monasteries, declaring them uneconomic. – 1538, appointed receiver of taxes for Surrey and Sussex.


1539, death of wife, Joan Marston Saunders; Parliament passed Acts of Dissolution, closing the doors of all Catholic monasteries in England; William Saunders of Ewell one of seventeen receivers appointed for Surrey and Sussex by the Court of Augmentations, a revenue branch of the Crown. William Saunders supervised local dissolutions and collected all assets on behalf of the Crown. (p. 123) –


Last of Catholic monasteries falls. After dissolution process was complete, William Saunders acquired defunct monastery properties in Surrey & Kent (p. 125). “William must have entertained some misgivings about his receivership role as he seems to have rescued two gold crosses from monasteries that he eventually bestowed upon his sons as remembrances of old faith. Not the least of William’s struggles would have been to participate in the demise of Charles Carew, rector and last master of the Beddington Chapel, and William’s distant relative. The chapel and it’s appurtenances were forfeited to the Crown under William Saunders’ authority in 1539, Carew having been accused of some unproven felony for which he was evidently executed in 1540.” (p. 123). –


William Saunders was appointed Commissioner of the Peace for Surrey & Sussex. –


appointed Treasurer of Calais. –


married Joan Gittons, widow of Thomas Gittons, the “largest importer of wines in all of England in his day.” William presumably knew Thomas Gittons through his ownership of the Three Crown’s Inn of Southwark. Marriage to Joan Gittons produced four children: twins Francis & Frances, Catherine & Elizabeth. (p. 124). –


William Saunders was appointed to the Chantry Commission. (p. 125). –


William Saunders acquired a manor and iron mill in Sussex (p. 125). –

King Henry VIII died;

Edward VI, 9 year-old son of Henry & Jane Seymour, successor; uncle Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset named Lord Protector. (p. 126). –

1548 William Saunders appointed escheator of Surrey & Sussex. (p. 126). –


King Edward VI died at age 15; Mary Tudor, daughter of 1st wife, Katherine of Aragon, ascends to the throne and overthrows her father’s Protestant policies, returning England to Catholicism. –


Pope returned England to the Holy See and demanded heretics be burned at the stake, beginning Bloody Mary’s reign of terror. (p. 127). “Under Mary, William Saunders rose to the zenith of his career, being elevated into a central place in the English royal household. William was dubbed cofferer to Queen Mary, having responsibility to manage Queen Mary’s wealth.” (p. 127). –


returned to Parliament. –

The planned marriage of Queen Mary to Philip of Spain touched off a series of rebellions in England, “the most noted of which was Wyatt’s Kentish Rebellion of 1554. . . . Teaming up with his cousin, Sir Thomas Saunders of Charlwood, William Saunders descended up Bletchingly in 1554 with superior force and in seventeen wagons carried off arms and other property amassed by Sir Thomas Cowarden [a Protestant Justice of the Peace], whose loyalty to the Queen was in doubt.” (p. 128). –


Knighted by Queen Mary. –


appointed High Sheriff of Surrey.


Death of Queen Mary; succeeded by half-sister Elizabeth, daughter of Henry VIII & Anne Boleyn. –


William Saunders and sons Nicholas & Francis received a royal pardon for “land alienation,” for acquiring land originally held by monasteries, sold without royal license. (p. 130). –


William Saunders appointed Queen’s Surveyor “despite his close and eager support of the Catholic queen just five years before. . . . William’s substantial knowledge of escheated Surrey lands evidently outweighed his Catholic beliefs. . . . Elizabeth’s need for skill in property law and taxation as revenues fell precipitously following her coronation.” It was William’s final government post. (p. 130). –


Death of William Saunders of Ewell. Notes: Prior to William’s death, the Catholic Counter-Revolution accelerated arrests of recusants; sons Erasmus & Nicholas were arrested shortly after his death. (p. 130). In addition to substantial wealth, William’s children also inherited “a high social and political orbit . . . (and) a set of allegiances from marriage and political exchange that William had built over his lifetime. . . .”

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Selected Excerpts from Latimer’s History of the Merchant Venturers Guild of Bristol, U. K., Part 1

Over eleven decades ago, an important history of the Merchant Venturers Guild of Bristol, U. K., was published in England.

I will be excerpting relevant passages that I believe will prove useful in developing insights into the ancestsral family history of related families who settled in 17th century Virginia.

I offer these excerpts as providing support to my argument that mercantile institutions existed in Bristol and elsewhere that would help explain the distribution near port cities in England of several (perhaps many) related surnames that are also found in 17th century Virginia.


From the preface to John Latimer Society of Merchant Venturers of the City of Bristol; with some Account of the Anterior Merchants’ Guilds, 1903, J. W. Arrowsmith, Quay Street, Bristol, U.K.:

“It is somewhat remarkable that although the merchants of the leading outports in England obtained royal charters of incorporation in the sixteenth century, no Merchant Venturers’ Society was established in London.

“A corporate body, eventually styled the Merchant Adventurers of England, had indeed been founded by Henry the Fourth, and granted exclusive rights of trading with Germany and the Low Countries; but . . . the members ‘were in those times dispersed, and dwelt as well in the outports of the kingdom – viz.: at York, Hull, Exeter, and Newcastle, as at London, though the greatest number always dwelt at London’. . .

“Down to the rupture with Spain in the reign of Elizabeth, the General Courts of this singular Society, whose members were exclusively Englishmen, but whose Governor, Wardens, and Assistants were elected and resided abroad, generally assembled at Antwerp, and at that time the members living in London do not appear to have had a recognized right to elect a resident deputy Governor.

“At a later period, the headquarters of the fraternity were at Hamburg, whene it became commonly known in this country as the Hamburg Company; and it being then customary to hold three General Courts yearly – two at the new centre and one in London – the organization got later on to be loosely styled the ‘London Company.”

The crest of the Merchant Venturers of the City of Bristol

“By the charter granted to the Bristol Merchants by Edward the Sixth, they were forbidden to traffic in the region reserved to the Merchant Adventurers of England; but this restraint was abrogated by the second local charter granted by Charles the First. The latter instrument, resulting from the temporary capture of this city by the Royalist army, was probably regarded as invalid by the party that afterwards gained supremacy.

:But in 1662 Charles the Second, in response to a petition setting forth the decay of the clothing trade in the West of England occasioned by the narrow policy of the English Adventurers, ordered that admission to that company should be granted to all merchants at the outports on payment of a small fine. . .

“[I]t appears that in 1669 the Bristolians, pleading their charters, appealed to the Privy Council against the monopoly claimed by the Hamburg Company; . . . The Merchant Adventurers of England still flourish for a time at Hamburg , . . . [but by the early years of George the Third] English trade with the Hanse Towns had been entirely unrestricted for three-quarters of a century.”

“Dr Gross [author of The Gild Merchant] has been unable to find any trace of the existence of an English Guild Merchant in the Anglo-Saxon period of our history. . .  although Merchant Guilds had been undoubtedly established in some parts of Normandy and Northern France.

“The history of our own guilds, therefore, begins after the advent of the Conqueror, when . . . the close unity between England and Normandy led to an increase in foreign commerce, and greatly stimulated internal trade and industry. With the expansion of trade, the mercantile element naturally became a more important factor in town life, and would soon feel the need of joint action to guard the nascent prosperity against encroachment.

“The earliest extant references to the Guild Merchant . . occur in the charter granted by Robert FitzHamon [Lord of the Honour of Gloucester] to the burgesses of the little town of Burford (1087-1107) and in a document drawn p whilst Anselm was Archbishop of Canterbury (1093-1109). Soon afterwards, during the reign of Henry the First (1100-1135), the Guild appears in various municipal charters, and its propagation must have been greatly stimulated by the further extension of England’s Continental possessions under Henry the Second.

“[I]n November, 1200, King John [Henry II’s son] made a fresh grant of liberties to the burgesses of Dublin, permitting them . . to have all guilds, as well as, or better than, those enjoyed by the burgesses of Bristol (Charter Rolls).

“The privileges of Bristol were in fact so extensive, and so much coveted by other buroughs , that it became the custom for less favoured communities to appeal to the Crown for the like concessions . . , None of these, however, obtained the full privileges enjoyed by Bristolians. In the reign of Richard the First the import of foreign wines was exclusively confined to London and Bristol . . and the western port seems to have had the largest share of the trade, for the Patent and Close Rolls of King John and his son, Henry the Third, contain a multitude of mandates of wine for the Royal household and Court favourites. Latimer, pp. 1-4

“When trade and industry underwent a great expansion during the period of the three Edwards, the mercantile interests must have become completely dominant in many towns, the burgher merging in the townsman, and gildship becoming an appurtenance of burgess-ship. . .The same men swayed the counsels of the borough and gild. Latimer, p. 5 (quoting Gross.)

“The case of the town of Gloucester is still more striking, for there the Guild actually became the Corporation. The irst common seal of that borough, an impression of which is appended to a document executed between 1237 and 1245, bears the inscription in latin: – “Seal of the Burgesses of the Merchants’ Gild of Gloucester”.




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