Winchcombe and the Benefactors of Henry VIII’s Dissolution of the Monasteries, Part 2 (Anthony Saunders)

The following excerpts are from Knowles, David; Bare Ruined Choirs: the dissolution of the English monasteries, pp. __-223.


“These considerations [of the historic, charitable role of monasteries], and others more detailed and subtle, were set out in unforgettable phrases by Robert Aske at his examination six months later [         ] When he wrote, Aske was a prisoner with no hope of life. He had nothing to gain and it may have seemed to him that he had much to lose from a frank exposition of his feelings in the previous autumn . . .

With the departure of the visitors in the autumn and winter of 1535-6 there began, for such of the monasteries as were not liable to suppression under the Act of 1536, a short periof of three to four years that my truly be called the last phase of their existence. Though their ultimate fate was still uncertain, they could have had few illusions as to the change in their condition. Any hopes that the inmates may have cherised of permanent survival became more and more forlorn with every new political event; domestic authority was impaired; sincere and sensitive spirits must have been assailed of every kind of doubt and despondency . . . The visitation coming as the climax of a series of harassing demands, had shown conclusively, even brutally that the royal supremacy was not a matter of words alone. Their independence, their freedom of manoevure, was gone for ever. . . .

Here, however, the abbotts had to do with an essential part of Cromwell’s technique, and met with no satisafaction. Taking no interest whatever in the spiritual well-being of the monasteries, he wished his grip to be felt throughout the community and . . . consistently used unsatisfactory or disgruntled subjects both as informers and as agitators, to bring about the downfall of an abbot or the surrender of a house. A number of letters of complaint rom such men survive, particularly from the months immediately following the visitation. They . . . have been preserved in particular abundance in connection with a group of houses in the region between the Cotswolds and the Malvern hills. The monasteries concerned are Winchcombe, Evesham, Pershore and Worcester; three of the four were seen as homes of energy in the late Old English monastic world. . .

Winchcombe had lost only three years previously the most distinguished abbot of its history, but there is no evidence that Richard Kidderminster had set any stamp upon the community . . . Cromwell, it would seem, had some personal connection with Winchcombe, for he is found staying there in the first days of August when the king lay nearby in Gloucestershire and he was on the point of launching the great visitation of the monasteries. . .  Three weeks later one of the monks, John Placid, writes [to Cromwell that he] “is troubled . . about certain ceremonies which exalt the bishop of Rome, and wishes for powers to confiscate books dealing with the pope . . .

At about the same time Crowell was hearing from another Winchcombe gospeller, one Anthony Saunders, whom he had appointed ‘pastor’ in the little town to ‘set forth the King’s title and pluck down the great whore of Rome’. “I have small favour and assistance amongst the pharisaical papists’, writes Saunders. He is preaching justification by faith alone, and in consequence the neighbouring abbot of Hailes has set up to preach against him ‘a greate Golyas, a sotle Dunys man’.

Nor do the monks appreciate his efforts; they come later to his sermons because ‘they set so much by their Popish services’. With such an entourage the abbot was sure to be in trouble whether he enforced or relaxed discipline.

From Litzenberger, Caroline, The English Reformation and the Laity: Gloucestershire, 1540-1580 (Cambridge Studies in Early Modern British History). From the introductory chapter subtitled “Gloucestershire in the 1530s”:

“Whereas, the Protestantism espoused by William Tyndale, William Tracy and James Baynham in the 15o2 and early in the 1530s had been at variance with the official religious policies of the Crown, those policies had changed by the mid-1530s as a result of the break with Rome and the ascendancy of supporters of reform to positions of power at court. The shift in policy was first clearly felt in Gloucestershire with the elevation of the reformer, Hugh Latimer, to be bishop of Worcester in 1535. Latimer had gained notoriety for his preaching in nearby Bristol and Exeter, as well as in London at Paul’s Cross and at court. . .

“[S]in 1497 the Crown had used the see of Worcester to support its representative to the Papcy, and, as a result, had awarded the bishopric to a series of Italians, none of whom ever came to England. . . However, once the Crown began to promulgate new policies, it needed someone in residence to implement and enforce them.

“Following his elevantion to the episcopate, Latimer immediately began to promote his beliefs within the diocese through his own sermons and his patronage of other preachers, three of whom, James Ashe, Anthony Saunders and Hugh Williams alias Rawlyns, held livings in GLoucestership . .  Saunders had been appointed rector of Winchcombe by Cromwell sometimes before November 1534.

“Meanwhile Anthony Saunders was having trouble at Winchcombe. Not only was he one of Latimer’s licensed preachers, he had also been sent to his new cure with explicit instructions from Cromwell ‘to preach the word of God and read it to the monks’. However, both the size of the parish and the opposition of the abbot were impeding his efforts . . . The abbot seems to have seen Saunders’s preaching as having crossed the line into heresy, rather than just supporting the new official relgion religion . . .

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Richard Tracy (1501-1569) Stanway, Gloucestershire, U. K.




RICHARD TRACY educated at Oxford, adm. 27 June 1515.

The following excerpt is from the History of Parliament:

“Richard Tracy’s background and early life doubtless resembled in most respects those of many young men of similar lineage. His family was an old established one in Gloucestershire, which its members had served both locally and at Westminster, his father a justice of the peace and sheriff. A younger son, Richard Tracy spent some time at Oxford before entering the Inner Temple, where if he made no mark on the professional side he was to work his way up as an administrator to the rank of governor


RICHARD TRACY at First Temple


RICHARD TRACY is Master of the revels, First Temple

RICHARD TRACY adm. First Temple, 6 July 1519


A Military Survey of Gloucestershire (1522), excerpts by WHB:

Slaughter Hundred; Broadwell: John Carter 20 lbs., p.88; Upper Slaughter: Richard Tracy 10 sh., p.96

Kiftsgate Hundred with Holford and Greston: p. 223; Westington: Richard Tracy, gent. 40 sh., p. 229; Toddington: William Tracy esq with lands there and other manors, 105 lb, goods 500 lbs., harness for three men.; The abbot of Hailes is rector there and the rectory is worth 8 lbs.; Henry Wyllys is vicar there and the vicarage is worth 8 lbs.; Richard Tracy (371v) a. William Carter


RICHARD TRACY elected to parliament, representing the constituency of Wootton Bassett.

The following excerpt is from the History of Parliament:

“The borough of Wootton Bassett, for which Tracy was returned to the Parliament of 1529, was to be represented by many men from across the nearby border, but his home near Winchcomb was rather distant for him to be accounted a local man: the same was true of his fellow-Member, Walter Winston, who lived at Randwick near Stroud. Like two other Wiltshire boroughs, Devizes and Marlborough, Wootton Bassett formed part of the jointure of successive queens consort and this court connexion probably explains the appearance among its Members of men who had little, if any, personal connexion with it. In the case of Tracy, the names of possible patrons include those of Sir Edward Baynton, a local magnate who besides securing his own election for the shire may have been influential in other boroughs, and Sir John Brydges, who was returned for Gloucestershire and whose marriage connexions with Tracy probably assisted his election. If religious sympathy entered into the matter, Baynton’s incipient Protestantism would have made him a natural patron for the son of so doughty a reformist as William Tracy.


RICHARD TRACY holds the office of Butler 1530-1534

WILLIAM TRACY OF TODDINGTON, RICHARD TRACY’s father dies and leaves a controversial provision which in the following year is deemed heretical.

An excerpt from the History of Parliament:

“The elder Tracy’s death on 10 Oct. 1530 started a chain of events which were to have a profound effect on his son. The dead man had made a will in which he explicitly refused to bequeath anything ‘for that intent that any man shall say or do to help my soul’”


When WILLIAM TRACY’s will is proved, it was referred to the Convocation of Canterbury.

23 March 1531. The Convocation of Canterbury condemns WILLIAM TRACY’s will as heretical.

The following excerpt is from the History of Parliament:

“Dr. Thomas Parker, chancellor of Worcester, not only exhumed TRACY’s body, as he had been instructed to do, but burnt it at the stake, for which he needed, but did not obtain, the writ de heretico comburendo. The fine of £300 imposed on Parker was some retribution for this gruesome affair but the Church itself was to be the greatest loser. Tracy became a Protestant hero and near-martyr, and his will—or what purported to be it—was circulated among the faithful and was published with a commentary by William Tyndale: even the orthodox Robert Joseph admitted that ‘Tracy has done more harm to the Christian religion in his death than by his pestiferous contentions before’.5

“Filial piety and reforming zeal combined to make RICHARD TRACY the protagonist in his father’s cause—his elder brother is never mentioned—and from his vantage-points of the Temple and Parliament he organized his campaign. He had been present in Convocation when the verdict was given and it would be interesting to know if he tried to interest the Commons either in this or in its sequel.


According to the History of Parliament:

[O]n 15 Jan. 1533, shortly before setting out for London to attend the fifth session [of Parliament] (which began on 4 Feb.) [RICHARD TRACY] wrote, presumably from Gloucestershire, to an unamed friend, recounting the sotry and promising to explain the situation to [Thomas] Cromwell who, he had heard, was commissioned to investigate. Whether Cromwell was brought into the affair, or whether, as some versions suggest, even the King took it up, does not appear.

“Cromwell was of assistance to Tracy in other spheres and helped him to obtain several properties and leases: on 16 Feb., during the fifth session, the abbot of Tewkesbury agreed to the minister’s suggestion to grant him the manor of Stanway, which immediately became his home. Tracy’s name appears in several of Cromwell’s memoranda, and it is evident that the two men were close.


RICHARD TRACY holds the office of Steward 1535-1537

From the History of Parliament:

[RICHARD TRACY] sent [Thomas] Cromwell a discourse, which may have been of his own composing, on the evils of making lawyers bishops and the need to choose suitable preachers.


From The History of Parliament:

[P]resumably [RICHARD TRACY] served for Wootton Bassett in the following [Parliament], that of June 1536, when the King asked for the re-selection of the previous Members, and perhaps again in 1539 and 1542, for which Parliaments the names of the borough’s Members are lost.”

“When in the autumn of 1536 the north rebelled, TRACY was one of those gentlement in the west on whose loyalty the King felt he could rely, but in the even Tracy’s allegiance was never put to the test.


From the History of Parliament.

“[RICHARD TRACY] was named to the bench for Worcestershire, where he owned more land than in his own county, and from then on he cut a figure in local affairs, especially in religious matters for which he earned the praise of Bishop Latimer.


From the History of Parliament.

[RICHARD TRACY] served on the commission to examine a relic belonging to Hailes abbey which was adjudged spurious and entrusted to his care.

[RICHARD TRACY] was nominated, but not picked, as sheriff of Worcestershire, being passed over in favor of Robert Acton.


Thomas Cromwell loses favor with Henry VIII and is beheaded.

From the History of Parliament

[RICHARD TRACY']s friendship with Cromwell led to his occasional presence at court and it was perhaps on such a visit that he witnessed the reception of Anne of Cleves. The fall of the minister did not harm Tracy’s career, although in the 1540s no trace of his presence at court has been found.

[RICHARD TRACY']s first known work, The profe and declaration of thys proposition: Faith along justifieth was dedicated to Henry VIII, to whom he described himself as the ‘most simple of this your realm and yet one of the lively members of this your civil and politic body’.

Two more tracts, Of the Preparation to the Crosse and to Death dedicated to Cromwell in 1540.


The publication Supplycation to our most Soueraigne Lorde Kyng Henry the Eyght published are usually considered TRACY’s work and gained him some popularity.


The reformist bias in [RICHARD TRACY]‘s writings of was not welcomed by the government [of Henry VIII] and in July 1546 his publications were banned, together with those of other Protestant authors.


RICHARD TRACY marries BARBARA LUCY, daughter of THOMAS LUCY of Charlecote, Warwickshire and ELIZABETH EMPSON, daughter of SIR RICHARD EMPSON of Easton Neston, Northants.


On the accession of Edward VI this ban [on RICHARD TRACY's religious writings] lapsed, and in 1548 Tracy published A most godly enstruction and lesson and A bryef and short declaration made wherebye every Chrysten Man may knowe what is a Sacrament, in which he opposed transubstantiation. His purpose was didactic, and according to his sympathisers he observed in his own life the principles that he advocated. His reputation as ‘an earnest favourer of all good and godly learning’ was generally praised, particularly by his protégéBartholomew Traheron.8


RICHARD TRACY holds the office of Governor 1549-1550,


The year 1551 was an unhappy one for Tracy. On 10 May his friend Robert Keilway II was imprisoned in the Fleet for having concealed “a seditious and lewd message” fm, and a week later Tracy was himself committed to the Tower.


In February 1552 the attorney-general and John Throckmorton I were ordered to examine [RICHARD TRACY in the tower], but he wasw not released until the following 17 November and even then ordered to appear weekly before the Council.

This episode has been thought to have resulted from Tracy’s unfavourable estimate of the Earl of Warwick, but it may be more than a coincidence that several years later TRACY had to defend his title to a manor against one John Throckmorton.


[TRACY's] religious views were to bring him to the notice of the Council during Mary’s reign, when he was removed from the bench for both Gloucestershire and Worcestershire. His avowed intention to conform met with some incredulity, and the Queen’s doubts were confirmed in September 1555 when the Council rebuked him for his behavior towards Bishop Brooks of Gloucester.

On this occasion TRACY reiterated his vowal and he probably did conform as no more is heard of his opposition and he is not known to have gone into exile.


RICHARD TRACY was in trouble with the Council once more before the reign was out, but this was for refusing to contribute towards the forced loan of 1557.


RICHARD TRACY must have welcomed the advent of Queen Elizabeth I (in November 1558). He was restored to his place on the bench.


RICHARD TRACY picked as Sheriff of Gloucestershire.


The new religious settlement was to disappoint RICHARD TRACY. He protested against the retention of a crucifix in the Queen’s chapel and warned Cecil of the dangers of idolatry.


RICHARD TRACY in a will made 6 March 59 provided from a debt owing him the marriage portions of his three daughters, Hester, Susan, and Judith, whose batismal names, like his sons’ reflect his devotion to the Bible. His pat of the lands of Clifford priory and certain unspecified lands recently purchased from the first Earl of Pembroke he dised upon his younger sons, Samuel and Nathaniel. He appointed his eldest son Paul exer and his cousin George Stratford overseer. TRACY died two days later, and the will was proved in the following month.

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Winchcombe and the Benefactors of Henry VIII’s Dissolution of the Monasteries

Clues exist that suggest Henry VIII’s Dissolution of the Monasteries came to be of importance to the Gloucestershire families of whom I believe I am descended. I am interested in several family surnames, such as Carter, Tracy, Stratford, Laurence, Saunders, Crump and Ayres (Ayers).

What are some of the historical facts that should be examined to determine if they have relevance to the families from which my Virginia ancestors are descended?

Question One: Is it relevant that Anthony Saunders was one of the last Curates of the Abbey of Winchcombe, having served from 1535 to carry out the policies of Henry VIII?

The following excerpt is from the Victoria County History; Page, William (editor), A History of the County of Gloucester Volume 2, 1907.

“In 1535 Cromwell appointed Anthony Saunders, the curate of Winchcombe, to read to the monks of Winchcombe and preach in the parish. L. and P. Hen. VIII, ix, No. 747. On 2 November he complained to Cromwell of the abbot of Hayles—

“I have small favour and assistance amongst Pharasaical papists. The Abbot of Hayles has hired a great Golyas, a subtle Dun’s man, yea a great clerk, as he sayeth, a bachelor of divinity of Oxford to catch me in my sermons.

He added that this preacher rather maintained than spoke against the usurped power of the bishop of Rome. However, Abbot Stephen was not openly hostile to Cromwell. On 28 January, 1536, he wrote asking him to dispense with some of the new injunctions which were most galling to the religious. L. and P. Hen. VIII, ix, No. 747 (p.192). Since Cromwell had visited the house, he wrote—

“The number of my brethren is sore decayed. I have buried three, two are sore sick, one had licence to depart, and I have three in Oxford at divinity. I beg that I may take in more to help the choir.

“On 18 June he told Cromwell that in accordance with his wish he had granted the farm of Longborough to Robert Hopper. (L. and P. Hen. VIII, x, p. 1163)

“In 1538 commissioners were appointed in every county to destroy the shrines. Latimer, bishop of Worcester, reported to Cromwell that the relic of the Holy Blood of Hayles seemed, after examination, to be ‘an unctuous gum and a compound of many things.’ (fn. 56) It was dispatched to London, and on 24 November Hilsey, bishop of Rochester, preached at Paul’s Cross, and there showed the Blood of Hayles, affirming it to be ‘honey clarified and coloured with saffron, as had been evidently proved before the king and his council.’ (fn. 57) Abbot Stephen wrote to Cromwell praying that he might destroy the empty shrine, ‘lest it should minister occasion for stumbling to the weak.’ (fn. 58)

“On 24 December, 1539, the abbot and twenty-one monks surrendered the monastery. (fn. 59) Dr. London and his fellow-commissioners reported to Cromwell that they found— the father and all his brethren very honest and conformable persons, and the house clearly out of debt. . . . The father had his house and grounds so well furnished with jewels, plate, stuff, corn, cattle, and the woods also so well saved, as though he had looked for no alteration of his house. (fn. 60)

“A pension of £100 a year, with the manorhouse of Coscomb, was assigned to the abbot; the prior and one monk got £8; the rest received pensions varying from £7 to £1 6s. 8d. a year, and two monks were given vicarages. (fn. 61) Wages were paid to seventy servants of the household. (fn. 62)

“In 1535 the clear yearly value of the property of Hayles amounted to £357 7s. 8½d. (fn. 63) The possessions of the monastery included the manors of Hayles, Pinnockshire, Nether Swell, Wormington, Coscomb, Longborough; rents in the towns of Gloucester and Winchcombe; lands and rents in Didbrook, Challingworth, and Farmcote, in Gloucestershire; the manor of Rodbourne in Wiltshire; pastures at Heathend in Worcestershire; and the rectories of Hagley in Suffolk, Northley in Oxfordshire, St. Breage and St. Paul in Cornwall, Rodbourne in Wiltshire, Hayles, Didbrook, Longborough, and Toddington in Gloucestershire.”

The clear yearly value of the property of the monastery in 1535 amounted to £759 11s. 9¼d.; (fn. 137) in the hands of the crown bailiff in 1540 it brought in £945 3s. 11¼d. The possessions of the convent in Gloucestershire included the manors of Winchcombe, Twyning, Sherborne, Staunton, Snowshill, Honeybourne, Dry Marston, Adelmington, Bledington, Yanworth, Hazleton, Rowell, Halling, Charlton Abbots, Naunton, Frampton, Coates, Sudeley, the hundreds of Kiftesgate, Holford, and Greston, rents in Winchcombe and Gloucester, the rectories of Winchcombe, Twyning, Staunton, and Bledington, in Oxfordshire the manor and rectory of Enstone, in Warwickshire the manor of Alne.”

Question Two: Is it relevant that Richard Tracy and John Stratford were given royal commissions relating to the dissolution of the Abbey of Hailes in Gloucestershire?

“On 11 November 1541, the gentlmen John Bridges, Richard Tracy and John Stratford received royal letters of commission directing them to investigate serious crimes committed on the site of a recently dissolved abbey in Gloucestershire. In the letters the king announced: ‘We are informed that great spoil hath been made by diverse persons, to us yet unknown, of the church and houses of the late monastery of Hailes, reserved to be defaced and sold or otherwise disposed to our use.’ He gave his commissioners ‘full power and authority’ to ‘search by all ways and means . . . what things of the said church and houses have been taken away, spoled, or stolen, and by whom the same spoil hath been done; and report their findings to the Court of Augmentations.

Shagan, Ethan H., Popular Politics and the English Reformation: Cambridge studies in Early Modern British History, 2003, p. 162.

Question Three: To what extent did the religious controversies with which Richard Tracy (1501-1569) of Stanway and his father William Tracy of Toddington were identified affect their descendents and my ancestral Gloucestershire families?

The relationship of the Gloucestershire Tracy family to King Henry VIII, King Edward VI and Queen Mary are chronicled in The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1509-1558, excerpts of which might be found at Richard Tracy (1501-1569) Stanway, Gloucestershire, U. K.


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Winchcombe, Bristol, and 17th Century Virginia and Gloucestershire Tobacco Policy

In 1619, a London merchant with Gloucestershire ties, John Stratford, bought land around Winchcombe in Gloucestershire to plant tobacco. In the same year, Parliament passed a law prohibiting the cultivation of tobacco in England.

An illicit tobacco growing trade evolved in Gloucestershire, which sometimes was apparently sold as “Virginia tobacco”. In 1631, Charles I’s administration moved against the Gloucestershire tobacco crop, the King’s privy council demanding that the sheriffs of Gloucestershire and Worcestershire take action, creating a backlash of support for Parliament in its battle against the monarchy.

From the periodical Gloucestershire Notes and Queries:

1321. TOBACCO GROWING IN GLOUCESTERSHIRE. The announcement recently made by the Government of their intention to permit domestic experiments to be made in tobacco culture may render the following facts interesting to Gloucestershire agriculturists. Tobacco growing in the southern and western countiesof England became so common about 1652 that the Commonwealth Parliament of that year passed an Act prohibiting the culture of the plant, and giving liberty to anyone finding it to cut it down.

This Act appears to have caused great dismay and irritation in Gloucestershire. In August, 1653, soon after the reassembling of the House of Commons, “the humble petition of some of the inhabitants of Gloucestershire concerning the planting of English tobacco ” was presented by General Desborow. who, from having been governor of Bristol, was probably well known in the district.

Another petition, from the Society of Merchant Adventurers and other inhabitants of Bristol, was presented at the same time, and this was accompanied ” by a Certificate from the Mayor of Bristol.” The minutes are provokingly brief, but the House resolved “that there be an inquiry into this Eiot mentioned in this Certificate,” from which it is fair to suppose that the attempt to enforce the law had led to a serious disturbance.

On the same day the House resolved that “threepence upon every pound of tobacco planted in the county of Gloucester shall be paid by the planters to the use of the Commonwealth,” which was followed by a further resolution,” that the planters of English tobacco in Gloucestershire shall enjoy the tobacco by them planted this year only, without interruption or molestation” (Commons’ Journals, vii. 301). An Act to carry this decision into effect was ordered to be brought in, but no further reference to the subject is made in the minutes of the session.

The Council of State, in a circular addressed to the sheriffs of counties in June, 1658, assert that, according to information received, ” divers persons are preparing to plant vast quantities of tobacco,” and the local authorities are ordered to enforce the law vigorously. This was not likely to be done during the feeble administration of Eichard Cromwell.

The growth of ” the weed,” in fact, extended, and the Parliament of 1660 passed another Act, prohibiting the culture of the plant “the existence of the plantations [West Indies] depending on its growth there.” The penalties for infringing the law were the forfeiture of the crop and a fine of 40s. per rood. A proclamation was issued in 1661, enjoining the local officers to prevent infractions of the statute.

Nevertheless, a lengthy communication was received by the Government from Bristol, on the 7th August, 1667, doubtless emanating from persons interested in the West India islands. It states that the Act was imperfect, giving power to destroy home-grown tobacco ” only to such magistrates as receive information of it ; that the plant was grown throughout Gloucestershire, even on the land of justices of the peace ; and that as half the profits of the land are paid to the owners for rent, their interest forbids them to destroy it ; that by the King’s order given to the- High-Sheriff of Gloucestershire, with a list of places where tobacco is growing, it was ordered to be cut down, and the names of the owners returned to the Council ; suggesting, as a remedy, a letter from the King to the Judges of Assize for Gloucestershire, ordering returns to be made, and setting fines for neglect ; and that as much tobacco is grown in the neighbouring counties, a strong prohibition be issued against its sale, and a commission given to search for and destroy it” (State Papers, Domestic, 1667, p. 366).

The Government appears to have followed the advice contained in the concluding sentence of this document. In a letter dated Bristol, 19th August in the same year, from an official underling, J. Fitzherbert, writing to Secretary Williamson, is the following : ” Met 120 horse of the King’s and Duke’s guards at Leicester, making to Winscomb in Gloucestershire, to cut down the tobacco planted there in con- tempt of the law.” (76., p. 399.)

The State Papers for the remainder of the reign of Charles II. have not been published; but it may be inferred that the efforts of the Government to suppress an industry which injured the public revenue .were temporarily successful. In the course of time, however, the culture of the plant seems to have been renewed on an extensive scale, for in Bristol : Past and Present, vol. iii., p. 151, there is a summary of a petition of Dorothy Gray, widow, to the House of Commons, to the effect that, in 1692, her late husband, John Gray, discovered nine plantations of tobacco, extending over 1300 roods, growing near Bristol, and belonging to rich merchants, some of them members of the corporation.

The forfeitures on these plantations, which were destroyed, are alleged to have amounted to 15,000, but the petitioner complained that though her husband was entitled to one-third of the money as informer, he never had any share of it, and was ruined in this service. Mrs. Gray appears to have got no redress, but the laws were afterwards vigorously executed, and we hear no more of a branch of industry in Gloucestershire which seems to have been profitable. j L

The following questions should be answered:

1) Is there a relationship between the activities of John Stratford in 1619 and the activities of RICHARD TRACY and GYLES CARTER at the same period, who sailed from England to the Coast of Virginia.


The following paragraphs are from the website

Tobacco Leaf Growing

It was during the 16th and early 17th centuries that the area around Winchcombe was extremely poor , it was during this period that a family named Tracy established themselves at Toddington, the eldest son Sir John Tracy became involved with a John Stratford who was related to him by marriage, they set up a business together to grow tobacco in the area, with plantations at Toddington and Bishops Cleeve.

Tobacco was widely grown on the Cotswolds, the Vale of Tewkesbury and in an area which extended as far south as Wiltshire.

Winchcombe was crossed and re-crossed by Salters routes, John Stratford was a member of the Salter’s Company, he was a dealer in woollen stockings and a member of the Eastland Company who dealt in broadcloth, his vas business interests also included the manufacture of tallow, oil, potash and soap.

At the very time of the first crop in the area coming to maturity in 1619 tobacco growing in the British Isles was banned, this was done in order that it could be grown on a commercial scale in the Colonies where it was considered that the need for employment was greater.

After which much of the land on the Cotswolds was turned to growing flax but despite the ban illegal tobacco growing continued on a substantial scale this resulted in a proclamation being read out by a parliamentary agents declaring it illegal, many fights broke out between them and the local populace who could see their livelihoods being lost.

As a result of such disturbances a fresh act of parliament was passed in 1652 banning the growing. Despite this continued and further disturbances took place when in 1667 the authorities sent in a platoon of Life Guards to destroy the crops and to quell the dissenters.

However, records show that the locals were still defiant as planting had taken place as late as 1675 at Winchcombe. The connection with tobacco and the past at Winchcombe still exists – there is a road named Tobacco Close and despite the lapse in time the occasional tobacco plant is still found growing in the Cotswolds.

[WHB Notes: I have compiled some of my Gloucestershire results that directly relate upon the above information in the following posts:

Gyles Carter of Badgeworth (? – c.1627) which discusses a trip that Gyles Carter and Sir Richard Tracy took to Virginia on board the ship Supply from the port of Bristol in 1620.

2) Was the Crump family referred to as being centered in Charlton Abbots and Winchcombe engaged in the Gloucester tobacco trade, prior to members of the family emigrating to Virginia?

3) Which of the ancestral Gloucestershire families of  whom I am descended, were involved in the growing or investment in tobacco in England, prior to their emigration to Virginia?

[WHB: Note that two surnames are associated with the tobacco growing ventures in the Cotswolds - Tracy and Stratford, both families of whom intermarried with the CARTERS of Gloucester County. The names appear in both Miscellaneous Documents from Early 16th Century Gloucestershire and Miscellaneous Documents from Early 17th Century Gloucestershire.]


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“Albion’s Seed”, Y-Chromosome “MRCAs”, and Clues Found in Gloucestershire

In David Hackett Fischer’s seminal work, Albion’s Seed: Four British Folkways in America, Oxford University Press, 1989, p.236. he makes the following observations:

“Virginia’s Great Migration: Regional Origins:

“[A] majority of Virginia’s indentured servants hailed from sixteen counties in the south and west of England – the same area that produced Virginia’s elite. A case in point was the population that settled in Virginia’s Isle of Wight County. A local historian found that ’early Isle of Wight families seem to have come mostly from the southwest of England, that is the counties of Gloucester, Somerset, Devon, Dorset, Wiltshire and Hampshire . . . their names appear to be more numerous in the west country than in any other part of England . . .

“Another example was the population of Berkeley Hundred in Virginia. Its historian found that ‘the majority . . . whether sponsors, tenants at labor or indentured servants, were . . .  born and bred in Gloucester, where many of them were natives of the Berkeley vale, the Cotswold Edge, or the Winchcombe area”.

WHB – The following excerpt is from BBC History’s THE CIVIL WAR IN THE WEST, Dr John Wroughton, at

“The [English Civil] war was over [in 1645], but the cost to ordinary people in human suffering was immeasurable. Bled dry with taxes, they had also endured the compulsory billeting of uncouth troops in their houses, the plundering of their animals, the theft of their food, the disruption of their markets, the vandalisation of their churches and the destruction of their property. The lingering effects of the war were visible wherever you turned.

“One-third of the people in Gloucester were homeless; one-quarter in Bridgwater and two-thirds in Taunton. Hundreds of maimed soldiers and destitute widows submitted petitions to the county quarter sessions in the hope of gaining some relief. Fields lay abandoned; bridges broken down; and road surfaces destroyed.

“In 1646, on the anniversary of the relief of Taunton from siege, George Newton, the minister, looked around him and described in a sermon what he called “her heaps of rubbish, her consumed houses, a multitude of which are raked in their own ashes. Here a poor forsaken chimney and there a little fragment of a wall that have escaped to tell what barbarous and monstrous wretches there have been.”


Note from WHB (3-25-12):

After taking the y-chromosome test and confirming my (long contested) descendency from Julius Saunders, I thought it advisable to find out more about the Most Recent Common Ancestors (MRCAs) of persons  to whom the y-chromosome test suggested that I was related, within the last 21 generations. The surnames were as follows:

9 generations – Cullins, Wilson; 12 generations – Durfey; 15 generations – Kerley; 19 generations – Crump, Marsh, and Burnette; 21 generations – Arnold (2) and Ayers (2). Because I frequently come across tne Crump and Ayers surnames in my ancestral Virginia counties, I began to research them.

Right away, I came across the following query:

“We are researching Crumps from the Gloucestershire area in England, some of the places are Charlton Abotts Winchcombe, Blockley, Brockhampton, Norton, Leckhamption, Charlton Kings, Shurdington[. W]e would like to share the research we have from the Crumps in these areas.” [The query was first posted in 2003, and was edited in 2004.]

A prominent member of one of my ancestral families was rector of a parish church connected with Winchcombe Abbey in Gloucestershire, England. [See John Carter (1470?-1538) Alderton, Gloucestershire, England.]

Information I had gathered from Gloucestershire records provided information on the individuals in Charlton Abbot and elsewhere that lived in lands in which the Carters were lord. [See Miscellaneous Documents from Early 17th Century Gloucestershire.]

Additionally, my GGG Grandmother MARY ANN (POLLY) CARTER JOHNSON was married in Bedford County, Virginia by John Ayers.

A further note. The MRCA is the outside possibility. For example, the Burnette listed as having an MRCA sometime in the past 19 generations is known to me (through comparison of our family trees and through his separate y-chromosome test) to share an MRCA [in fact, JULIUS SAUNDERS] with me five generations back.

Note also that in the town of Westbury-on-Trym, to the North of the seaport town of Bristol in Gloucestershire (mentioned in the Armourer’s documents in 16th Century Gloucestershire, elsewhere on this website) resides the Saunders family.

There appears to be the possibility of a convergence of historical, genealogical and genetic data that might identify Gloucestershire as the ancestral home of the SAUNDERS of Virginia in my direct line.

Posted in GLOUCESTERSHIRE DOCUMENTS | Leave a comment

The Carters, Goodloes and Ammons in Middlesex and Spotsylvania Counties, VA 1710-1750

In my post dedicated to JOSEPH CARTER, born 1704 in Christ Church Parish in Middlesex County, VA, son of WILLIAM CARTER and MARY GOODLOE, I noted a dispute as to whether he was the same JOSEPH CARTER who appears in Spotsylvania County, VA from 1732 on, I asked the following four questions:

1) Are there connections between the Middlesex GOODLOE relatives of JOSEPH CARTER and Spotsylvania County? 2) Are there connections between CATHERINE AMMON, her brother Christopher Ammon, and Spotsylvania County? 3) Does it matter if the persons being so considered are Anglican, Quaker or Baptist? 4) What motivates a person to move from Tidewater Virginia to Virginia’s Spotsylvania or Brunswick Counties?

It is my plan to devote this page to discussing the answers to these four questions, and perhaps to raise additional ones.

1) Are there connections between the Middlesex GOODLOE relatives of JOSEPH CARTER and Spotsylvania County?

The following entry, in Spotsylvania County Deed Book A, 1722-1725; Antient Press; Page 52:

THIS INDENTURE made the Third day of August in the year of Our Lord one thousand seven hundred and twenty three; Between Henry Goodloe, late
of the County of Middlesex and now of the County of Spotsylvania and Parish of Saint George. Gent. of one part and Mark Wheeler of the County of Spotsylvania of the other part; Witnesseth that Henry Goodloe in consideration of the sum of five shillings to him in hand paid by Mark Wheeler the receipt whereof he doth hereby acknowledge, hath and by these presents doth bargain and sell unto Mark Wheeler all that parcell of land being part of a Survey made for Henry Goodloe for eighteen hundred acres of land and lying in the County of Spotsylvania and bounded; Begining at two white Oaks on the side of a Hill corner to the said Goodloe, thence North fourty five degrees East sixty poles to two red Oak saplins on the side of a Hill in Goodoe’s line, thence South twenty seven degrees East one hundred and eighty eight poles to a red Oak on the East side of a Ridge in GOODLOE’s cross line, thence South fourty degrees West one hundred and twenty five poles to a small white Oak on the North side of a small Branch, thence North one hundred and fourty poles to the place it first began containing one hundred acres of land according to the express bound thereof; To have and to hold the one hundred acres of land dureing the term of one year paying therefore the rent of one pepper corn at the Feast of Saint Michael the Arch Angel if the same be lawfully demanded to the intent that by vertue of these presents and the Statute for transerring uses into possession Mark Wheeler may be in actual possession and thereby enabled to accept a grant of the reversion and inheritance thereof to him and his heirs; In Witness whereof Henry Goodloe hath hereunto set his hand and seal the day and year first within written
Signed sealed and delivered in presents of us – Thomas Chew, Henry Goodloe, John Chew, Robert his mark Evenes

The following quotations are from Mansfield, James Roger, A History of Early Spotsylvania, Green Publishers, Inc., Orange, VA, 1977:

“On 4 May 1725, Henry Goodloe and Harry Beverley petitioned the court to have a road cleared from their homes to the new church on the River Ta. [Larkin] Chew, Beverley, and Goodloe were large owners along the Ta and Po Rivers and influential enought to get almost anything they wanted. The new church was named “Mattaponi”, possibly because it stood among the four princiapl branches of the Mattaponi River; the Mat, the Ta, the Po, and the Ni.” Mansfield, ibid., p. 59.

[WHB: JOSEPH CARTER's uncle, and the brother of MARY GOODLOE CARTER, was named Henry Goodloe. The reference to Henry Goodloe being "late of Middlesex County" makes it virtually certain that it is JOSEPH CARTER's uncle who became one of the first major landowners in Spotsylvania County at a time when JOSEPH CARTER, living in Middlesex County, was 18 years old. It doesn't seem implausible that the family group of Henry Goodloe, his sister MARY, the widow of WILLIAM CARTER, and her son JOSEPH might have supported the idea of the newly married JOSEPH establishing his residence in Spotsylvania County by 1733, after having had the marriage ceremony in Middlesex County where the groom's mother and bride's brother resided.]

“The presiding justices of the first court [of Spotsylvania County], August 7, 1722, were: Augustine Smith, Richard Booker, John Taliferro, William Hansford, Richard Johnson and William Bledsoe.

“These were the founding fathers and appointees of [Virginia Governor] Alexander Spotswood. Edwin Hickman was added to the court on June 2, 1724. Jeremiah Clowder had also been appointed but declined to take the oath. Henry Goodloe was swon in on July 7.” Mansfield, ibid. p. 108.

“At this time, Edward Franklyn was discharged as overseer of the road from Henry Goodloe’s to the church on the River Ta, and Samuel Ham was appointed in his place.” Mansfield, ibid. p. 133-134.

2) Are there connections between CATHERINE AMMON, her brother Christopher Ammon, and Spotsylvania County?

On 29 January, 1735, Banns were held for Christopher Ammon’s marriage to Mary Bristow. [Original data: National Society of the Colonial Dames of America in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Parish Register of Christ Church, Middlesex County, Virginia from 1653 to 1812. Richmond, VA, USA: Christ Church, 1897.]

Mary Bristow’s mother was MARY GOODLOE [CARTER] BRiSTOW, one of two known children born in the second marriage to John Bristow, after WILLIAM CARTER’s death.

JOSEPH CARTER and Mary Bristow were half-brother and half-sister. They respectively married a full-brother and -sister, CATHERINE AMMON and Christopher Ammon.

Henry Goodloe of Spotsylvania County (born in Middlesex County) was the maternal uncle of both JOSEPH CARTER and Mary Bristow. He was the brother of the mother-in-law for both CATHERINE AMMON and Christopher Ammon.

Posted in AMMON, CARTER, GOODLOE | Leave a comment

Joseph Carter (1704-1751), Middlesex and Spotsylvania Counties, VA



WILLIAM CARTER [William Carter (1660-1711) Middlesex County, Virginia] and MARY GOODLOE had six children:

3-1 George Carter (born 1692) – listed as a grandson in the will of Mary’s father [George Goodloe (1637-1710), Middlesex County, Virginia]

3-2 Philip Carter (born 1694)

3-3 Ann Carter (born 1701), presumably named for her aunt.


“Parish Register of Christ Church, Middlesex Co, VA from 1653-1812, Births” – the children of WILLIAM CARTER and second wife MARY GOODLOE:JOSEPH baptised Apr 30, 1704″


“Parish Register of Christ Church, Middlesex Co, VA from 1653-1812, Births” – the children of WILLIAM CARTER and second wife MARY GOODLOE: Robert baptised Jun 30, 1706″


“Parish Register of Christ Church, Middlesex Co, VA from 1653-1812, Births” – the children of WILLIAM CARTER and second wife MARY GOODLOEMary baptised June 20, 1708″


1711, Feb. 5 – MIDDLESEX COUNTY DEED BOOK 3, 1709-1720…p. 286, KNOW ALL MEN by these presents that wee MARY CARTER, Henry Goodloe & Jacob Presson of Middx County are bound unto John Smith Genty first in Commission of the peace for the County in sum of three hundred pounds Sterl. this 5th day of February 1711. The Condition of this obligation is such that MARY CARTER Executrix of a WILLIAM CARTER deced who obtained a Probate of the last Will and Testament of the said Wm. Carter deced shall at all times fullfill thesaid Will and performe all the Law enjoyns in such cases that then the above obligation to be void otherwise to remain. (her) In the presence of us Jno. Curtis, MARY CARTER, Wil. Stanard (mark), Henry Goodloe, Jacob Presson.

[WHB: At WILLIAM CARTER's death, my ancestor JOSEPH CARTER was seven, with a five-year old brother Robert and three year old sister Mary. Also from the 20 years of WILLIAM CARTER's marriage to MARY GOODLOE, there is also a 19 year old brother George and 18 year old brother Philip.

There has been dispute among family historians as to whether the JOSEPH CARTER born 1704 and married to CATHERINE AMMON in 1731 in Christ Church Parish is the same as JOSEPH CARTER whose sons and daughters were born in Spotsylvania County, VA and who died in Spotsylvania.

Miller's 1922 book about the Carters of Lancaster County, VA that suggests that JOSEPH CARTER belongs with a different line appears to be the informational sources for the main dissenting voices. (See the letter from Margaret Baldock to WHB below). It is my intention to examine and augment the evidence that concludes that indeed the JOSEPH CARTERs of Middlesex and Spotsylvania Counties are the same.

I would ask four questions at this point. 1) Are there connections between the Middlesex GOODLOE relatives of JOSEPH CARTER and Spotsylvania County? 2) Are there connections between CATHERINE AMMON, her brother Christopher Ammon, and Spotsylvania County? 3) Does it matter if the persons being so considered are Anglican, Quaker or Baptist? 4) What motivates a person to move from Tidewater Virginia to Virginia's Spotsylvania or Brunswick Counties?

It is my plan to discuss these four questions, and, perhaps, add new ones, on the following page: The Carters, Goodloes and Ammons in Middlesex and Spotsylvania Counties, VA 1710-1750.]


JOSEPH CARTER married CATHERINE AMMON  1 Dec. 1731 in Middlesex Co., VA.

Note: Data provided by Mrs Nancy S. Goodloe (Las Cruces, NM), Mrs Thelma L. Harper; Albuquerque; Mrs Lily Carter Thurman, Houston; Mrs Pattie M. Norris, Indianola, MS, helped identify descendents of Mary Goodloe Carter as of 1978.


Note: Elby F. Bowman, Shell Knob, MO, authored (1978)  The Ancestors of Joseph Carter of Buckingham County VA and Bath and Morgan Counties KY wrote “Joseph Carter and Catherine Ammon left Middlesex County VA shortly after their marriage as no further entries pertaining to them or their issue appear in the Christ Church Parish records. We next find them in Spotsylvania County VA per the following entries – -

3 June 1735 Robert Goodloe of St George’s Parish Spotsylvania County sells 190 acres to JOSEPH CARTER; also JOSEPH CARTER of St George’s Parish makes his will 19 Feb 1750 — probated 7 May 1751.


Crozier, William Armstrong, Spotsylvania County Records,  Southern Book Company Baltimore, 1955.
Will Book B 1749-1759 page 10

CARTER, JOSEPH, St. George’s Parish, d. Feb. 19, 1750, p. May 7, 1751. Wit. Robert Huddlestone, Wm. Pruitt, James Younger, Robert Durrett. Ex. wife, CATHERINE CARTER; Mr. John Minor and my son, John Carter. Leg. wife, Catharine; son, John, tract of land bought of Benj. Matthews; daughter Mary Carter; daughter, Elizabeth Carter; son, George Carter, son, Robert Carter, the land where I now live after his mother’s decease; daughter, Caty Carter.


Excerpt of a Letter (dated June 6, 1989) from Margaret Baldock (Clovis NM) to WHB:

Dear William,

I have I think figured out the lineage back to 1660-ish as you can see by the enclosed family group sheets. I have not proven all as yet so I definitey don’t say that this is all for sure.

I feel pretty good about the WILLIAM AND MARY (GOODLOE) CARTER line and the reason for that is that we have a very good history of the Goodloe famly that was done in 1982 by Dr Paul Goodloe. He has established the Carter line for us as beginning with WILLIAM AND MARY CARTER. My mother’s maiden name is Goodloe.

JOSEPH CARTER md. CATHERINE AMMON  1 Dec. 1731 in Middlesex Co., VA.

WILLIAM CARTER’s will names sons Thomas, William, George and Phillip. He does not name any girls and not all his boys. In the Christ Church Parish Middlesex Co. birth records we find not only the boys named [in his will] but also JOSEPH baptised 30 April 1704, Ann, Robert, Mary and Elizabeth. However not all the children are named in the parish records either.

In 1741 John Carter made his will naming nephew (?) Sarah Rice, Brother (in-law) Robert Daniel, brother JOSEPH CARTER, brother (in-law) Mark Wheeler, sister Elizabeth Daniel and wife Mary Carter. Now, this Mark Wheeler is very important later on.

There is no further record of JOSEPH CARTER and CATHERINE AMMON in Middlesex Co., but there shows up in Spotsylvania Co. a JOSEPH AND CATHERINE CARTER. JOSEPH CARTER makes his will naming his wife CATHERINE, son JOSEPH, John, George, Robert and daughter Elizabeth. He also mentions that his son JOSEPH and his heirs to have the Tract of land he bought of Mark Wheeler. Christ church records –  ”, son of Mark and Sarah Wheeler baptized 3 Apr. 1720. There was no record of a marriage though.

3 Jan. 1749 – Mark Wheeler and Sarah his wife of Spotsylvania Co. to JOSEPH CARTER of same county 38 lbs 100 acres conveyed to said Wheeler by Henry Goodloe Gent., deceased as by deed, 3 June 1735. Wit. Robt. Durrett, James Younger, Maes Ham and Patric Kennedy.

Some other people that help make the connection of the Goodloes and the Carters are Robert Durrett. He married Elizabeth who was the daughter of Henry Goodloe, who was the brother of MARY GOODLOE who married WILLIAM CARTER.

JOSEPH CARTER appointed Mr John Minor as a witness and he was a brother to Diana Minor who married George Goodloe. Goerge was the son of Henry who was the brother of MARY GOODLOE CARTER.

The reason I’m giving you this information is that there was another Joseph Carter family living in Spotsylvania at this time and apparently had similar family names. It’s possible that they were cousins even. Dr Joseph L. Miller in his Descendents of Capt. Thomas Carter of ‘Barford’, Lancaster Co., Virginia published in 1922 attributes all the information in Spotsylvania Co. to Joseph from Lancaster Co. Some people will really argue that his reasoning is correct and I can show a great number of flaws.

Now I know that my Ammon Carter, b. ca. 1765 father’s name was Joseph because he shows up on the tax list right beside his father. I have no idea what his mother’s name was. In the back of my mind I keep thinking maybe it was Priscilla because I can’t find where that name came from, or as a matter of fact, where the name Nancy came from. Then there was the female child that we have no name for. Polly (Mary) could have come from her Great-Grandmother MARY GOODLOE CARTER.

I think that where we need to put our heads together is to try to prove or disprove what I have. You may have more or even a different idea that I do. You may have them going in a different direction, but as I told you before I like to have as much definite proof as I can get before I take it as ‘truth”. I’m too much of a skeptic for that. I also won’t take somthing just because someone says it’s so. . .




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William Carter (1660-1711) Middlesex County, Virginia

This will be the page for William Carter of Middlesex County, Virginia, and the genealogical information recorded about his life that has widespread acceptance.

Life events during the reign of Charles II:


“Parish Register of Christ Church, Middlesex Co, VA from 1653-1812, Marriages” – WILLIAM CARTER married Penelope Pew Aug 31, 1681

[WHB - An historical marker commemorating the site of Christ Church in Saluda (Middlesex County), Virginia may be found on General Puller Highway (Virginia Route 33( at the intersection of Urbanna Road (Virginia Route 227).

"Parish Register of Christ Church, Middlesex Co, VA from 1653-1812, Births" - the children of WILLIAM CARTER & Penelope Pew: Mary baptised Oct 23, 1681"

[WHB - child born two months after marriage?]


“Parish Register of Christ Church, Middlesex Co, VA from 1653-1812, Births” – the children of WILLIAM CARTER & Penelope Pew: Thomas baptised Aug 5, 1683

Life events during the reign of James II:


“Parish Register of Christ Church, Middlesex Co, VA from 1653-1812, Births” – the children of WILLIAM CARTER & Penelope Pew: Elizabeth born June 6, 1686″


“Parish Register of Christ Church, Middlesex Co, VA from 1653-1812, Births” – the children of WILLIAM CARTER & Penelope Pew: William baptised Nov 6, 1687″

Life events during the reign of William III and Mary II:


“Parish Register of Christ Church, Middlesex Co, VA from 1653-1812, Marriages” – WILLIAM CARTER married (2nd) Mary Goodlow Jul 2, 1691


1692-1694 Richmond Co VA Orders; Antient Press: (Page 1)
Richmond County Court 4th of May 1692
- It is ordered that WM. CARTER be Constable ye ensueing year in the stead of William Griffin & that he do repaire to the next Justice of the peace to be sworn according

“Parish Register of Christ Church, Middlesex Co, VA from 1653-1812, Births” – the children of WILLIAM CARTER and second wife MARY GOODLOE: George Born April 22, 1692 and baptised May 22, 1692″

Life Events during the Reign of William III:


“Parish Register of Christ Church, Middlesex Co, VA from 1653-1812, Births” – the children of WILLIAM CARTERand second wife MARY GOODLOE: Phillip born Dec 10, 1693 baptised Jan 4, 1694″

“Parish Register of Christ Church, Middlesex Co, VA from 1653-1812, Births” – the children of WILLIAM CARTER and second wife MARY GOODLOE: Penelope baptised Jul 15, 1694″ , Ann baptised Jan 23, 1701/2, JOSEPH baptised Apr 30, 1704, Robert baptised Jun 30, 1706, Mary baptised June 20, 1708 (this second Mary had Mary Goodloe for a mother).


THIS INDENTURE made the 24th day of April 1695 in the Sixth yeare of the Reigne of our Lord & Lady William and Mary Between Francis Weekes of the County of Middlesex Gent. and Henry Williamson of the County of ESSEX Gent:

Wittnesseth that the said Francis Weekes for the sum One hundred and Sixteene pounds & Sixteene shillings Sterling money have granted unto the said Henry Williamson his heirs Five hundred and Eighty four acres of land it being the land whereon the said Francis Weekes hath formerly and doth now live in Middlesex County back in the Woods on the Dragon Swamp bounded begining at a marked tree upon a Greene Branch between the land of WILLIAM CARTER on the one side and this land now purchased on the other from thence So: to Mr. Henry Williams line thence So:E: thence along his line SW to the Dragon Swamp thence along the said Swamp tell you come to the Greene Branch so along the Greene Branch to the first mentioned marked tree
In presents of us Thomas Hill,
Francis Weekes
Elias Powell, Att a Court held for County of Middlesex the 6th of May 1695
Then personally appeared Mr. Francis Weekes and in open Court acknowledged the land this 24th of Aprill 1694.
above written Deed to be his act and deed
KNOW ALL MEN by these presents that I Francis Weekes doe owe and am bound unto Henry Williamson in sume of Five hundred pounds Sterling good lawfull money of Eng The Condition of the above obligation is such that if from henceforth peasebly possession of all that Plantation by him the above named Henry Williamson as by Deed may appear and procure & Elizabeth his Wife if Liveing – hir Relinquishement of hir right of Dower the above obligation shall be voyd otherwayes to romaine Wittness my, hand and seale this 24th Aprill 1695
In presence of us Hnery Hill, Francis Weekes
Elias Powell.

[WHB Note: The Dragon Swamp is several miles south of Urbanna, on the headwaters of an inlet of Chesapeake Bay. The directions from current day Urbanna along today's highways to the Dragon Swamp are as follows:Head south on Cross St/State Route 1005 toward Virginia St (390 ft); Take the 1st right onto State Route 602/Virginia St; Continue to follow State Route 602 (0.8 mi.); Turn left onto State Route 615/Town Bridge Rd. Continue to follow Town Bridge Rd (2.4 mi); Turn left onto US-17 S/Tidewater Trail Continue to follow US-17 S (3.9); Turn left onto VA-198 E/Glenns Rd (2.1 mi); Turn left onto Belleview Rd (0.8 mi); Take the 1st left onto Point of View Ln.1701 

"Parish Register of Christ Church, Middlesex Co, VA from 1653-1812, Births" - the children of WILLIAM CARTERand second wife MARY GOODLOE:  Ann baptised Jan 23, 1701/2.

Life events during the reign of Queen Anne:


WILLIAM CARTER, 172 acs., Middlesex County, 28 Oct. 1702, p. 498. Adj. Mr. Francis Weekes; Seagar’s line; by the Green Br. in Jones’ line; patent of Abraham Weekes. Trans. of 4 pers: Robert Cook, Wm. Hamett, Judith Fluit, Thomas Hows



“Parish Register of Christ Church, Middlesex Co, VA from 1653-1812, Births” – the children of WILLIAM CARTER and second wife MARY GOODLOE: JOSEPH baptised Apr 30, 1704″


“Parish Register of Christ Church, Middlesex Co, VA from 1653-1812, Births” – the children of WILLIAM CARTER and second wife MARY GOODLOE: Robert baptised Jun 30, 1706″


“Parish Register of Christ Church, Middlesex Co, VA from 1653-1812, Births” – the children of WILLIAM CARTER and second wife MARY GOODLOEMary baptised June 20, 1708″


WILLIAM CARTER’s father-in-law GEORGE GOODLOE  dies.


1711, Feb. 5 – MIDDLESEX COUNTY DEED BOOK 3, 1709-1720…p. 286, KNOW ALL MEN by these presents that wee MARY CARTER, Henry Goodloe & Jacob Presson of Middx County are bound unto John Smith Genty first in Commission of the peace for the County in sum of three hundred pounds Sterl. this 5th day of February 1711. The Condition of this obligation is such that MARY CARTER Executrix of a WILLIAM CARTER deced who obtained a Probate of the last Will and Testament of the said Wm. Carter deced shall at all times fullfill thesaid Will and performe all the Law enjoyns in such cases that then the above obligation to be void otherwise to remain. (her) In the presence of us Jno. Curtis, MARY CARTER, Wil. Stanard (mark), Henry Goodloe, Jacob Presson.

1694-1703 Middlesex Co Va Deed Book 2; Antient Press: (Page 16)

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John Johnson, Jr (?-1812/3) Bedford County, VA


December 21,, 1807 – Bedford County Marriage Bonds: JOHN JOHNSON, JR to MARY ANN (POLLY) CARTER. Surety is JOHN CARTER


Census of Bedford County VA, 467 [WHB- It appears that the entries for JOHN JOHNSON SR and JOHN JOHNSON JR are reversed.]

JOHNSON, JOHN, JR 00101-00300-10 [1 male over 45; 1 male 16-26; 3 females 16-26]

JOHNSON, JOHN, SR 00100-10100-00 [1 male 16-26; 1 female under 10, 1 female 16-26]


A note from Fay Foster quoting (dated February 1980) abstracts from Walter Lee Hopkins’ The Turner and Leftwich Families of Virginia:

“My grandfather was born in 1809 and he married Sara Ware Johnson, daughter of JOHN JOHNSON. Both of my grandfathers John Leftwich and John Johnson, lost their lives in the War of 1812.”

[Note from WHB: The quote above was from the late Fay Foster's letter. Subsequently, Keith Harris provided me with the exact quote and its contest:

But on page 157 of Hopkin’s book, here’s how it’s worded:

(4) John Leftwich (Uriah, Sr., Augustine, Sr., Thomas, Sr., Ralph), married Pofly (Mary) Dickerson, daughter of Suckey Board, September 25, 1805, in Bedford County, Va. William Henry Leftwich, his grandson, of Bedford, Va., now eighty-eight years of age, writes, “My father (Joel) was born in 1809, and he married Sarah Ware Johnson, daughter of John Johnson. Both of my grandfathers, John Leftwich and John Johnson, lost their lives in the War of 1812.” ]

John Leftwich’s children: 1) John Leftwich, 2) James Leftwich, 3) Susan Leftwich and 4) Joel Leftwich who married Sarah Ware Johnson.


Survey of the __nds the State of JOHN JOHNSON Junr, Dec’d, Exclusive of Widow’s Dower, Viz beginning at Ayers Corner & White oaks & Corner of the Widows Dower then on Ayres line N 41 W 180 poles to ____ Bird’s Corner then to Birds line N 56 W 64 poles to hit Dicksons Corner & Chestnut there on Dickesons lines by W 61 poles to a W o & c thence N42 ___ 50 poles to pointers thence S77W 112 poles to pointers thence corner of S 36 W 96 poles to Cundiffs Corner past oak on his line S 18 W 108 __ to a W O closing? his Corner and Joining Brons line to a W O & C thence S 52 E 67 poles pointers over of the Widows Dower then on the Dower lines N 32 E 97 poles to a Red oak thence N34 E 14 1/2 poles to a Red oak then East 97 1/2 poles to the first S tion Containing 349 1/2 Acres devided among the Legitees as followerh.

Lot #1 (49 acres) John Cundiff; Lot #2 (50.5 acres) Martin Johnson; Lot #3 (50.5 acres) David Johnson’s legatees; Lot #4 (50 3/4 acres) Jeremiah Ferguson; Lot #5 (49 1/4 acres) JOHN JOHNSON’S legatees; Lot #6 (49 acres) Polly Johnson; and #7 Nancy Johnson.


At a court held for Bedford County the 26th day of May 1834. This allotment of dower to MARY MILES, late MARY JOHNSON, widow of JOHN JOHNSON, dec’d, was produced in Court and ordered to recorded.  Teste, R. C. MitBook A PAGE 358V?Exec’d?


Note: Reference to deed book (Bedford County, VA) 1836: The following persons had to sign a deed  - Martin Johnson, Lucy (Johnson) Kenneth and husband Joseph S. Kenneth, Sally Johnson, and ELIZABETH and husband JOSEPH BURNETT. [WHB- Iff Sally Johnson were Sarah Ware, this would help confirm the JOHN JOHNSON, ELIZABETH JOHNSON’S father, was the Johnson who died in the War of 1812. Both Uriah Leftwich Jr. (Sara Ware Johnson’s uncle by marriage) and John Leftwich (Sarah Johnson’s would-be father-in-law) also died in 1812. Source: Fay Foster (Bedford County) letter of 9-30-1979.


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Julius Saunders (1720-?) New Kent, Goochland, Albemarle, Fluvanna Counties, VA

A critique of Saunders family history research:

[WHB - The dates and genealogical relationships from the following 2000 GenForum "Saunders Family Genealogy Forum" post from a K. Lund has been widely accepted by various persons researching the Saunders family history:

"Here are some bits that might be useful to you. The two family Bibles from which the data was copied out in 1880 have not been seen since 1913. Therefore, I can only say that the data is based on a transcript from Bibles augmented by my own research and the contributions of other researchers. [WHB - If both of these Bibles are indeed lost, it would be useful to have the description of what facts each Bible recorded without the "augmentations" from others' research.]

“These are the ancestors of Captain Julius Saunders, husband of Jane Hughes, according to those transcripts: Julius Saunders, Captain Rev. War. fought at the siege of Yorktown under Lafayette was born 12 Jan 1758 at Yorktown, New Kent Co, Colony of Virginia and died in August of 1821 at Bedford Co, VA. He had two wives. The order of their marriage is not given. [WHB - My current belief is that Captain Julius Saunders was born in Albemarle County. It is plausible to me that Captain Julius' grandfather resided in New Kent County around 1720 and that his father (named Julius) was born there.]

“One was a Miss Jane Hughes who died sometime after 1791 probably in VA and is believed to be dau. of Reece & Lucy Hughes. By her he had two sons and perhaps other children. Those sons were John G. ‘Jack’ Saunders [my husband's ancestor] and Julius Saunders [the line your queried about]. [WHB - I believe that Captain Julius Saunders was married only once and that his wife was Jane Hughes. I find it plausible that she died in the 1790s or early 18 oughts. I believe that the most recent common ancestor of John G[ardner] Saunders and myself is Captain Julius Saunders.]

The other wife of Capt Julius Saunders was a ‘Miss Woodward’ believed to be the Jemima Woodward sometimes attributed as wife to another Julius Saunders born 1720. [there may some sorting out needed here]. [WHB - I believe Captain Julius Saunders parents were Julius Saunders and Jemima Woodward, and that Captain Saunders did not marry a "Miss Woodward".]

The parents of Capt. Julius Saunders b. 1758 were George Saunders b. 9 Oct 1728 New Kent Co, Colony of VA and his wife Nancy Hatcher. [WHB - I believe this fact is wrong, but that the George Saunders-Nancy Hatcher idea needs to be explored, because of the later importance of the Hatcher family in relationship to my family in Bedford County a half century later.]

“They had 9 children : Julius [Capt in the Rev. War and our common research subject], Nancy, Elizabeth, John, James, Margaret, William, George W. and Richard. The parents of George Saunders b. 1728 were George Saunders b. 26 Oct 1682 New Kent Co, Colony of VA and his wife, Hannah Creed. They had 9 children: Barbara, Benjamin, Woodward, Thomas, Hannah, Mary, Nancy, Romulus and George.

“The parents of George Saunders b.1682 were Woodward Saunders b. 24 Apr 1632 Colony of VA and his wife Barbara King. They had 12 children: Elizabeth, William (a Quaker), Rolle, Margaret, Thomas, Hannah, Mary, James, Romulus, Barbara, George and John. The parents of Woodward Saunders were George Saunders b. 1 May 1574 England and his wife Elizabeth Woodward. They had 6 children: George, Thomas, James, Mehitable, Jerusha and Woodward.

“The parents of George Saunders b. England were John Saunders b. 6 Jul 1539 Wiltshire, England and his wife Jane Cathaside of Plymouth, England. They had 7 children: Rebecca, Susan, Martha, James, Benjamin, Roger and George. The parents of John Saunders b. 1539 England were Lawrence Saunders b. 8 Jul 1510 Cambridge, England [sometimes confused with Laurence Saunders b. 1520- d.1555 burned for heresy and a Martyr of the protestant church memorialized in 'Acts and Monuments' by Foxe whose parents were Thomas Saunders and his wife Margaret Cave] and his wife Elizabeth Kittewell. The had 6 children: John, Richard, Mary & Elizabeth (twins), George and Kittewell. The parents of Lawrence Saunders b. 1510 were John Saunders and his wife Jane Lawrence. [WHB - All of these family groupings need to be correctly identified. It is plausible that they are all related, but I am not convinced that any of this has been correctly proven.]

WHB -The history of Albemarle County is important to my family (not just the Saunders line.) This will prove important as these issues are discussed further.

Selected notes on the history of Albemarle County, from the Institute of Advanced Technology in the Humanites, University of Virginia,

“The earliest known settlement in the area was an Indian village (Monasukapanough) located approximately five miles north of the present center of town on a hillside overlooking the Rivanna River. In the early 1700′s settlers traveled the major east-west route from Richmond to a pass in the Blue Ridge mountains named Wood’s Gap (Jarman’s Gap), paralleling the James and Rivanna Rivers. This thoroughfare, the Three Notch’d Road or Three Chopt Road, threaded its way through the Southwest Mountains east of the current town at the Rivanna River Gap following an Indian hunting path through the region.1. As this route proceeded from the Rivanna River heading to the west, it followed a long ridge line separating two major drainage areas. Settlement along a dry ridge line was a common strategy for early Virginia villages, although unlike Charlottesville with its inland location, most of the early plantations and villages in the colonial period occurred with close proximity to the estuaries and rivers feeding the Tidewater region.

“By the mid-1750′s land grants were secured for a number of large parcels within Albemarle County. The first patents were recorded in 1727. In 1735 Abraham Lewis secured 800 acres in an area that currently includes the University of Virginia grounds, and Nicholas Meriwether secured 1,020 acres in the eastern portion of contemporary Charlottesville (in addition to a much larger tract of land to the east of the Southwest Mountains). In 1737, patents were issued to William Taylor between the Meriwether and Lewis tracks; this tract encompassed the area that would later become the village of Charlottesville.

“All of these land grants were included within Albemarle County (named for the titular governor of Virginia from 1734-54, the Earl of Albemarle) when it was established in 1744. In its original formation, Albemarle was extremely large and its county seat was located “centrally” in the village of Scottsville (Scott’s Landing) approximately twenty miles to the south of Charlottesville on the James River. Concerns arose over the size of the county and the difficulty in conducting the business of the county seat within such a large and increasingly settled area of the Virginia hinterland. In 1761 Albemarle was divided, considerably reducing its size down to 750 square miles and placing Scottsville along the extreme southern edge. The newly defined county purchased a 1,000 acre tract from Richard Randolph in a more central location, and in 1762 Charlottesville was founded by an Act of the Assembly as the Albemarle County seat.




JULIUS SAUNDERS, son of WILLIAM SAUNDERS and MARY born in New Kent County(?), VA [WHB Note: New Kent County's Saint Peter's Parish was split around this time into Saint Paul's and Saint Peter's. Presumably this record was from one of the two parishes. Which is the correct citation?]


Goochland County, Virginia Court Order Book 5; Book 174; Blomquist, Ann K.; p. 99:

“The petition of Henry Martin against JULIUS SANDERS was dismissed with costs.”

[WHB: Assuming this JULIUS SAUNDERS is the son of WILLIAM SAUNDERS born in  New Kent County in 1720, he first appears at age 22 involved in a series of legal actions in Goochland County.

It is my current hypothesis that JULIUS SAUNDERS left New Kent County as a young man determined to make his fortune on land near the Western, upstream portions of the James River, and settled in what was then Goochland County and what is now Fluvanna County.]


Goochland County, Virginia Court Order Book 5; Book 174; Blomquist, Ann K.; p. 244:

“JULIUS SANDERS was summoned to declare how much of the estate of Thomas Alsup he possessed for garnishment [apprently for debts owed by the estate].”

[WHB: Note that nearly a century later, the surnames Sanders and Alsup appear in the 1840 Pulaski County, Kentucky census.]

Goochland County, Virginia Court Order Book 5; Book 174; Blomquist, Ann K.; p.318, 363:

“JULIUS SANDERS was the plaintiff in a trespass case brought by Charles Turnbull in Goochland County, Virginia.”


Goochland County, Virginia Court Order Book 5; Book 174; Blomquist, Ann K.; p. 410:

“The action of trover between David Pattison and JULIUS SANDERS, defendant, was continued.”

[Note the following definition from TheFreeDictionary  by Farlex:

"Early in its history, the English Common Law recognized the rights of a person whose property was wrongfully held (or detained). Such a person could bring an action of Detinue to recover the goods or, later, could bring an action on the case to recover the value of the goods. In the course of the sixteenth century, the action of trover developed as a specialized form of action on the case.

The action of trover originally served the plaintiff who had lost property and was trying to recover it from a defendant who had found it. Soon the lost and found portions of the plaintiff's claim came to be considered a legal fiction. The plaintiff still included them in the complaint, but they did not have to be proved, and the defendant had no right to disprove them. This brought the dispute immediately to the issue of whether the plaintiff had a right to property that the defendant would not give over to him or her. For some cases, it still was necessary for the plaintiff to demand a return of the property and be refused before he or she could sue in trover. It was reasonable to expect an owner to ask for his or her watch, for example, before the repairperson holding it could be sued for damages. The measure of damages in trover was the full value of the property at the time the conversion took place, and this was the amount of money the plaintiff recovered if he or she won the lawsuit.

Trover proved to be more convenient for many plaintiffs than the older action of detinue because a defendant could defeat a plaintiff in detinue by Wager of Law. This meant that the defendant could win the case by testifying under oath in court and having eleven neighbors swear that they believed him or her. In addition, the plaintiff in trover was not obligated to settle for a return of the property, regardless of its current condition, and did not have to prove that he or she had made a demand for the property if the defendant had stolen it. Since it was the plaintiff who selected the form of the action, he or she was more likely to choose trover over detinue."

Goochland County, Virginia Court Order Book 5; Book 174; Blomquist, Ann K.; p. 436:

"The petition of Phillip Weber against JULIUS SANDERS was continued in the July Goochland Court."


From Magazine of Virginia Genealogy 26 (1989):269, Nance, Joanne, Lovelance; Albemarle County, Virginia, Court Orders 1744/45-1748": 

"John Biby, JULIUS SAUNDERS, Stephen Saunders, and Nathaniel Hoggett were ordered to give testimony for the King in the Albemarle Court against James Gains."


From Magazine of Virginia Genealogy 26 (1989):269, Nance, Joanne, Lovelance; Albemarle County, Virginia, Court Orders 29(1991(94: 

"A Case brought by Abraham Allen against JULIUS SAUNDERS was dismissed in the court of Albemarle, Virginia."

Before 1749



JULIUS SAUNDERS to William A. Moss, 250 acres. Adj William Burton, John Morgood, Edward Chamberlaynes, John Anthony and William Sanders. Signed JULIUS and JEMIMA SANDERS Land Deed 10 July 1749, Albemarle, County, VA.

c. 1750

Elizabeth Saunders, daughter of JULIUS SAUNDERS and JEMIMA WOODWARD born in Albemarle County, VA.


Jesse Saunders, son of JULIUS SAUNDERS and JEMIMA WOODWARD born in Albemarle County, VA.


Oct 1755 - Claiborne Saunders, son of JULIUS SAUNDERS and JEMIMA WOODWARD born in Albemarle County, VA. [WHBClaiborne is the surname of the most prominent citizen of New Kent County, VA in the 17th century. Is there a family connection between Claiborne and Saunders? ]


12 January 1758 – JULIUS SAUNDERS, son of JULIUS SAUNDERS and JEMIMA WOODWARD, born in Albemarle County, VA.

31 July 1758 – JULIUS SAUNDERS grantee 335 acrecs on the south branches of the Rivanna River, Albemarle County.

[WHB: Note that the south branches of the Rivanna River flow through Fluvanna County into the James near the town of Columbia.]


George Saunders, son of JULIUS SAUNDERS and JEMIMA WOODWARD born in Albemarle County, VA.

20 September:

John Payne, Josias Payne and George Payne, 3443 acres Albemarle Co on both sides of Crooks Creek, adj. William Bailey, Thomas Snelson, Thomas Jefferson, John Key, William New, Benjamin and Richard Cocke, Walter King, the said George Payne, JULIUS SAUNDERS, William Sanders, William Clement & Abraham Say; p. 650 15.5 pounds, 400 acs. part thereof formerly Gtd unto the sd George Payne by Pat. 10 Feb 1748/49 [PB 27 p. 138] and 3043 acs. the residue never before Gtd.

[WHB - Crooks Creek branch of James River is located in Fluvanna County.]


Philemon Saunders, son of JULIUS SAUNDERS and JEMIMA WOODWARD born in Albemarle County, VA. [WHB -  Note the following: Pension Application of Philemon Saunders: S31347 . . . State of Virginia} County of Franklin} Ss On this 21st day of August 1832 personally appeared before me Benjamin Booth a justice of the peace in and for the County aforesaid Philemon Saunders Sr a resident of the County and state aforesaid aged sixty nine years . . . And the said applicant further states that he has no documentary evidence of his services & that he does not know of any persons by whom he can prove them except Julius Saunders Sr & perhaps Genl Joel Leftwich . . . NOTE: On 4 March 1837 Philemon Saunders requested a transfer of his pension from Franklin County VA to Shelby County KY, where he had moved because “he has five children living in Kentucky, all married and settled except one & that he wishes to come to Kentucky that he might not only be near them, but also living with one of them.”

[WHB-Philemon Saunders pension application in 1832 specifies his age as 69, which if correct would mean he was born around 1863. At the time Fluvanna County was part of Albemarle County.]


Pleasant Saunders, son of JULIUS SAUNDERS and JEMIMA WOODWARD born in Albemarle County, VA.


The will of WILLIAM SANDERS, dated 8 October 1760 and proved 8 November 1764 in Albemarle County, VA, leaves son JULIUS SAUNDERS 5 pounds of current money to him and his heirs forever; and to his grandaughter Mary Henson, after the death of Mary Hall, his wife, on negro woman Patt, one negro boy named Joe, negro girl Jenny, negro girl Sall, feather bed, furniture cows, etc. To my grandsons Clayborn and Jesse Sanders 400 acres of land wheron I dwell.


WILLIAM SANDERS’ grandson-in-law Philip Henson claims that he and his wife Mary [SAUNDERS] are heir of several Negroes from the estate of William Sanders.


On 10 Nov 1772 Rees Hughes and Lucy, his wife, of Goochland Co sold to Matthew Vaughan 75 ac in Goochland Co bounded by The Reverend Patrick Henry, Benjamin Woodson, Moses Broomfield, dcd, and  Matthew Vaughan.  Bk 10, p. 27 4.  They seemed to have then moved into neighboring Albemarle Co, where in 1777 he signed a petition to the Virginia legislature to divide Albemarle Co, forming the new county of Fluvanna, successfully passed through the Legislature by Thomas Jefferson.

Among the other signers were Henry Hughes, John Moody, Edmond Moody, and JULIUS SAUNDERS [WHB - Presumably, the elder JULIUS, husband of JEMIMA WOODWARD]

On 20 Oct 1787 Reese Hughes and Lucy, his wife, of Bedford Co. sold to Thomas Farrow of Fluvanna Co. 180 ac on Carey Creek, “land where Rees Hughes formerly lived “. (Bk 2, p. 242).  On 29 March 1800 Rees Hughes of Bedford Co. sold 190 ac in Bedford Co. to Jesse Hughes of Fluvannah Co., the land adj. to Robert Lazenby, Banner Bently, and Samuel Banks (Bk 11, p. 198). In April 1800 he sold 10 ac to Robert Lazenby.  No mention made of Lucy.


Fluvanna County separated from Albemarle County.

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