Winchcombe and the Benefactors of Henry VIII’s Dissolution of the Monasteries

Clues exist that suggest Henry VIII’s Dissolution of the Monasteries came to be of importance to the Gloucestershire families of whom I believe I am descended. I am interested in several family surnames, such as Carter, Tracy, Stratford, Laurence, Saunders, Crump and Ayres (Ayers).

What are some of the historical facts that should be examined to determine if they have relevance to the families from which my Virginia ancestors are descended?

Question One: Is it relevant that Anthony Saunders was one of the last Curates of the Abbey of Winchcombe, having served from 1535 to carry out the policies of Henry VIII?

The following excerpt is from the Victoria County History; Page, William (editor), A History of the County of Gloucester Volume 2, 1907.

“In 1535 Cromwell appointed Anthony Saunders, the curate of Winchcombe, to read to the monks of Winchcombe and preach in the parish. L. and P. Hen. VIII, ix, No. 747. On 2 November he complained to Cromwell of the abbot of Hayles—

“I have small favour and assistance amongst Pharasaical papists. The Abbot of Hayles has hired a great Golyas, a subtle Dun’s man, yea a great clerk, as he sayeth, a bachelor of divinity of Oxford to catch me in my sermons.

He added that this preacher rather maintained than spoke against the usurped power of the bishop of Rome. However, Abbot Stephen was not openly hostile to Cromwell. On 28 January, 1536, he wrote asking him to dispense with some of the new injunctions which were most galling to the religious. L. and P. Hen. VIII, ix, No. 747 (p.192). Since Cromwell had visited the house, he wrote—

“The number of my brethren is sore decayed. I have buried three, two are sore sick, one had licence to depart, and I have three in Oxford at divinity. I beg that I may take in more to help the choir.

“On 18 June he told Cromwell that in accordance with his wish he had granted the farm of Longborough to Robert Hopper. (L. and P. Hen. VIII, x, p. 1163)

“In 1538 commissioners were appointed in every county to destroy the shrines. Latimer, bishop of Worcester, reported to Cromwell that the relic of the Holy Blood of Hayles seemed, after examination, to be ‘an unctuous gum and a compound of many things.’ (fn. 56) It was dispatched to London, and on 24 November Hilsey, bishop of Rochester, preached at Paul’s Cross, and there showed the Blood of Hayles, affirming it to be ‘honey clarified and coloured with saffron, as had been evidently proved before the king and his council.’ (fn. 57) Abbot Stephen wrote to Cromwell praying that he might destroy the empty shrine, ‘lest it should minister occasion for stumbling to the weak.’ (fn. 58)

“On 24 December, 1539, the abbot and twenty-one monks surrendered the monastery. (fn. 59) Dr. London and his fellow-commissioners reported to Cromwell that they found— the father and all his brethren very honest and conformable persons, and the house clearly out of debt. . . . The father had his house and grounds so well furnished with jewels, plate, stuff, corn, cattle, and the woods also so well saved, as though he had looked for no alteration of his house. (fn. 60)

“A pension of £100 a year, with the manorhouse of Coscomb, was assigned to the abbot; the prior and one monk got £8; the rest received pensions varying from £7 to £1 6s. 8d. a year, and two monks were given vicarages. (fn. 61) Wages were paid to seventy servants of the household. (fn. 62)

“In 1535 the clear yearly value of the property of Hayles amounted to £357 7s. 8½d. (fn. 63) The possessions of the monastery included the manors of Hayles, Pinnockshire, Nether Swell, Wormington, Coscomb, Longborough; rents in the towns of Gloucester and Winchcombe; lands and rents in Didbrook, Challingworth, and Farmcote, in Gloucestershire; the manor of Rodbourne in Wiltshire; pastures at Heathend in Worcestershire; and the rectories of Hagley in Suffolk, Northley in Oxfordshire, St. Breage and St. Paul in Cornwall, Rodbourne in Wiltshire, Hayles, Didbrook, Longborough, and Toddington in Gloucestershire.”

The clear yearly value of the property of the monastery in 1535 amounted to £759 11s. 9¼d.; (fn. 137) in the hands of the crown bailiff in 1540 it brought in £945 3s. 11¼d. The possessions of the convent in Gloucestershire included the manors of Winchcombe, Twyning, Sherborne, Staunton, Snowshill, Honeybourne, Dry Marston, Adelmington, Bledington, Yanworth, Hazleton, Rowell, Halling, Charlton Abbots, Naunton, Frampton, Coates, Sudeley, the hundreds of Kiftesgate, Holford, and Greston, rents in Winchcombe and Gloucester, the rectories of Winchcombe, Twyning, Staunton, and Bledington, in Oxfordshire the manor and rectory of Enstone, in Warwickshire the manor of Alne.”

Question Two: Is it relevant that Richard Tracy and John Stratford were given royal commissions relating to the dissolution of the Abbey of Hailes in Gloucestershire?

“On 11 November 1541, the gentlmen John Bridges, Richard Tracy and John Stratford received royal letters of commission directing them to investigate serious crimes committed on the site of a recently dissolved abbey in Gloucestershire. In the letters the king announced: ‘We are informed that great spoil hath been made by diverse persons, to us yet unknown, of the church and houses of the late monastery of Hailes, reserved to be defaced and sold or otherwise disposed to our use.’ He gave his commissioners ‘full power and authority’ to ‘search by all ways and means . . . what things of the said church and houses have been taken away, spoled, or stolen, and by whom the same spoil hath been done; and report their findings to the Court of Augmentations.

Shagan, Ethan H., Popular Politics and the English Reformation: Cambridge studies in Early Modern British History, 2003, p. 162.

Question Three: To what extent did the religious controversies with which Richard Tracy (1501-1569) of Stanway and his father William Tracy of Toddington were identified affect their descendents and my ancestral Gloucestershire families?

The relationship of the Gloucestershire Tracy family to King Henry VIII, King Edward VI and Queen Mary are chronicled in The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1509-1558, excerpts of which might be found at Richard Tracy (1501-1569) Stanway, Gloucestershire, U. K.

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Winchcombe, Bristol, and 17th Century Virginia and Gloucestershire Tobacco Policy

In 1619, a London merchant with Gloucestershire ties, John Stratford, bought land around Winchcombe in Gloucestershire to plant tobacco. In the same year, Parliament passed a law prohibiting the cultivation of tobacco in England.

An illicit tobacco growing trade evolved in Gloucestershire, which sometimes was apparently sold as “Virginia tobacco”. In 1631, Charles I’s administration moved against the Gloucestershire tobacco crop, the King’s privy council demanding that the sheriffs of Gloucestershire and Worcestershire take action, creating a backlash of support for Parliament in its battle against the monarchy.

From the periodical Gloucestershire Notes and Queries:

1321. TOBACCO GROWING IN GLOUCESTERSHIRE. The announcement recently made by the Government of their intention to permit domestic experiments to be made in tobacco culture may render the following facts interesting to Gloucestershire agriculturists. Tobacco growing in the southern and western countiesof England became so common about 1652 that the Commonwealth Parliament of that year passed an Act prohibiting the culture of the plant, and giving liberty to anyone finding it to cut it down.

This Act appears to have caused great dismay and irritation in Gloucestershire. In August, 1653, soon after the reassembling of the House of Commons, “the humble petition of some of the inhabitants of Gloucestershire concerning the planting of English tobacco ” was presented by General Desborow. who, from having been governor of Bristol, was probably well known in the district.

Another petition, from the Society of Merchant Adventurers and other inhabitants of Bristol, was presented at the same time, and this was accompanied ” by a Certificate from the Mayor of Bristol.” The minutes are provokingly brief, but the House resolved “that there be an inquiry into this Eiot mentioned in this Certificate,” from which it is fair to suppose that the attempt to enforce the law had led to a serious disturbance.

On the same day the House resolved that “threepence upon every pound of tobacco planted in the county of Gloucester shall be paid by the planters to the use of the Commonwealth,” which was followed by a further resolution,” that the planters of English tobacco in Gloucestershire shall enjoy the tobacco by them planted this year only, without interruption or molestation” (Commons’ Journals, vii. 301). An Act to carry this decision into effect was ordered to be brought in, but no further reference to the subject is made in the minutes of the session.

The Council of State, in a circular addressed to the sheriffs of counties in June, 1658, assert that, according to information received, ” divers persons are preparing to plant vast quantities of tobacco,” and the local authorities are ordered to enforce the law vigorously. This was not likely to be done during the feeble administration of Eichard Cromwell.

The growth of ” the weed,” in fact, extended, and the Parliament of 1660 passed another Act, prohibiting the culture of the plant “the existence of the plantations [West Indies] depending on its growth there.” The penalties for infringing the law were the forfeiture of the crop and a fine of 40s. per rood. A proclamation was issued in 1661, enjoining the local officers to prevent infractions of the statute.

Nevertheless, a lengthy communication was received by the Government from Bristol, on the 7th August, 1667, doubtless emanating from persons interested in the West India islands. It states that the Act was imperfect, giving power to destroy home-grown tobacco ” only to such magistrates as receive information of it ; that the plant was grown throughout Gloucestershire, even on the land of justices of the peace ; and that as half the profits of the land are paid to the owners for rent, their interest forbids them to destroy it ; that by the King’s order given to the- High-Sheriff of Gloucestershire, with a list of places where tobacco is growing, it was ordered to be cut down, and the names of the owners returned to the Council ; suggesting, as a remedy, a letter from the King to the Judges of Assize for Gloucestershire, ordering returns to be made, and setting fines for neglect ; and that as much tobacco is grown in the neighbouring counties, a strong prohibition be issued against its sale, and a commission given to search for and destroy it” (State Papers, Domestic, 1667, p. 366).

The Government appears to have followed the advice contained in the concluding sentence of this document. In a letter dated Bristol, 19th August in the same year, from an official underling, J. Fitzherbert, writing to Secretary Williamson, is the following : ” Met 120 horse of the King’s and Duke’s guards at Leicester, making to Winscomb in Gloucestershire, to cut down the tobacco planted there in con- tempt of the law.” (76., p. 399.)

The State Papers for the remainder of the reign of Charles II. have not been published; but it may be inferred that the efforts of the Government to suppress an industry which injured the public revenue .were temporarily successful. In the course of time, however, the culture of the plant seems to have been renewed on an extensive scale, for in Bristol : Past and Present, vol. iii., p. 151, there is a summary of a petition of Dorothy Gray, widow, to the House of Commons, to the effect that, in 1692, her late husband, John Gray, discovered nine plantations of tobacco, extending over 1300 roods, growing near Bristol, and belonging to rich merchants, some of them members of the corporation.

The forfeitures on these plantations, which were destroyed, are alleged to have amounted to 15,000, but the petitioner complained that though her husband was entitled to one-third of the money as informer, he never had any share of it, and was ruined in this service. Mrs. Gray appears to have got no redress, but the laws were afterwards vigorously executed, and we hear no more of a branch of industry in Gloucestershire which seems to have been profitable. j L

The following questions should be answered:

1) Is there a relationship between the activities of John Stratford in 1619 and the activities of RICHARD TRACY and GYLES CARTER at the same period, who sailed from England to the Coast of Virginia.

Discussion:

The following paragraphs are from the website www.cotswolds.info:

Tobacco Leaf Growing

It was during the 16th and early 17th centuries that the area around Winchcombe was extremely poor , it was during this period that a family named Tracy established themselves at Toddington, the eldest son Sir John Tracy became involved with a John Stratford who was related to him by marriage, they set up a business together to grow tobacco in the area, with plantations at Toddington and Bishops Cleeve.

Tobacco was widely grown on the Cotswolds, the Vale of Tewkesbury and in an area which extended as far south as Wiltshire.

Winchcombe was crossed and re-crossed by Salters routes, John Stratford was a member of the Salter’s Company, he was a dealer in woollen stockings and a member of the Eastland Company who dealt in broadcloth, his vas business interests also included the manufacture of tallow, oil, potash and soap.

At the very time of the first crop in the area coming to maturity in 1619 tobacco growing in the British Isles was banned, this was done in order that it could be grown on a commercial scale in the Colonies where it was considered that the need for employment was greater.

After which much of the land on the Cotswolds was turned to growing flax but despite the ban illegal tobacco growing continued on a substantial scale this resulted in a proclamation being read out by a parliamentary agents declaring it illegal, many fights broke out between them and the local populace who could see their livelihoods being lost.

As a result of such disturbances a fresh act of parliament was passed in 1652 banning the growing. Despite this continued and further disturbances took place when in 1667 the authorities sent in a platoon of Life Guards to destroy the crops and to quell the dissenters.

However, records show that the locals were still defiant as planting had taken place as late as 1675 at Winchcombe. The connection with tobacco and the past at Winchcombe still exists – there is a road named Tobacco Close and despite the lapse in time the occasional tobacco plant is still found growing in the Cotswolds.

[WHB Notes: I have compiled some of my Gloucestershire results that directly relate upon the above information in the following posts:

Gyles Carter of Badgeworth (? – c.1627) which discusses a trip that Gyles Carter and Sir Richard Tracy took to Virginia on board the ship Supply from the port of Bristol in 1620.

2) Was the Crump family referred to as being centered in Charlton Abbots and Winchcombe engaged in the Gloucester tobacco trade, prior to members of the family emigrating to Virginia?

3) Which of the ancestral Gloucestershire families of  whom I am descended, were involved in the growing or investment in tobacco in England, prior to their emigration to Virginia?

[WHB: Note that two surnames are associated with the tobacco growing ventures in the Cotswolds - Tracy and Stratford, both families of whom intermarried with the CARTERS of Gloucester County. The names appear in both Miscellaneous Documents from Early 16th Century Gloucestershire and Miscellaneous Documents from Early 17th Century Gloucestershire.]

 

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“Albion’s Seed”, Y-Chromosome “MRCAs”, and Clues Found in Gloucestershire

In David Hackett Fischer’s seminal work, Albion’s Seed: Four British Folkways in America, Oxford University Press, 1989, p.236. he makes the following observations:

“Virginia’s Great Migration: Regional Origins:

“[A] majority of Virginia’s indentured servants hailed from sixteen counties in the south and west of England – the same area that produced Virginia’s elite. A case in point was the population that settled in Virginia’s Isle of Wight County. A local historian found that ’early Isle of Wight families seem to have come mostly from the southwest of England, that is the counties of Gloucester, Somerset, Devon, Dorset, Wiltshire and Hampshire . . . their names appear to be more numerous in the west country than in any other part of England . . .

“Another example was the population of Berkeley Hundred in Virginia. Its historian found that ‘the majority . . . whether sponsors, tenants at labor or indentured servants, were . . .  born and bred in Gloucester, where many of them were natives of the Berkeley vale, the Cotswold Edge, or the Winchcombe area”.

WHB – The following excerpt is from BBC History’s THE CIVIL WAR IN THE WEST, Dr John Wroughton, at bbc.co.uk

“The [English Civil] war was over [in 1645], but the cost to ordinary people in human suffering was immeasurable. Bled dry with taxes, they had also endured the compulsory billeting of uncouth troops in their houses, the plundering of their animals, the theft of their food, the disruption of their markets, the vandalisation of their churches and the destruction of their property. The lingering effects of the war were visible wherever you turned.

“One-third of the people in Gloucester were homeless; one-quarter in Bridgwater and two-thirds in Taunton. Hundreds of maimed soldiers and destitute widows submitted petitions to the county quarter sessions in the hope of gaining some relief. Fields lay abandoned; bridges broken down; and road surfaces destroyed.

“In 1646, on the anniversary of the relief of Taunton from siege, George Newton, the minister, looked around him and described in a sermon what he called “her heaps of rubbish, her consumed houses, a multitude of which are raked in their own ashes. Here a poor forsaken chimney and there a little fragment of a wall that have escaped to tell what barbarous and monstrous wretches there have been.”

.

Note from WHB (3-25-12):

After taking the y-chromosome test and confirming my (long contested) descendency from Julius Saunders, I thought it advisable to find out more about the Most Recent Common Ancestors (MRCAs) of persons  to whom the y-chromosome test suggested that I was related, within the last 21 generations. The surnames were as follows:

9 generations – Cullins, Wilson; 12 generations – Durfey; 15 generations – Kerley; 19 generations – Crump, Marsh, and Burnette; 21 generations – Arnold (2) and Ayers (2). Because I frequently come across tne Crump and Ayers surnames in my ancestral Virginia counties, I began to research them.

Right away, I came across the following ancestry.com query:

“We are researching Crumps from the Gloucestershire area in England, some of the places are Charlton Abotts Winchcombe, Blockley, Brockhampton, Norton, Leckhamption, Charlton Kings, Shurdington[. W]e would like to share the research we have from the Crumps in these areas.” [The query was first posted in 2003, and was edited in 2004.]

A prominent member of one of my ancestral families was rector of a parish church connected with Winchcombe Abbey in Gloucestershire, England. [See John Carter (1470?-1538) Alderton, Gloucestershire, England.]

Information I had gathered from Gloucestershire records provided information on the individuals in Charlton Abbot and elsewhere that lived in lands in which the Carters were lord. [See Miscellaneous Documents from Early 17th Century Gloucestershire.]

Additionally, my GGG Grandmother MARY ANN (POLLY) CARTER JOHNSON was married in Bedford County, Virginia by John Ayers.

A further note. The MRCA is the outside possibility. For example, the Burnette listed as having an MRCA sometime in the past 19 generations is known to me (through comparison of our family trees and through his separate y-chromosome test) to share an MRCA [in fact, JULIUS SAUNDERS] with me five generations back.

Note also that in the town of Westbury-on-Trym, to the North of the seaport town of Bristol in Gloucestershire (mentioned in the Armourer’s documents in 16th Century Gloucestershire, elsewhere on this website) resides the Saunders family.

There appears to be the possibility of a convergence of historical, genealogical and genetic data that might identify Gloucestershire as the ancestral home of the SAUNDERS of Virginia in my direct line.

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The Carters, Goodloes and Ammons in Middlesex and Spotsylvania Counties, VA 1710-1750

In my post dedicated to JOSEPH CARTER, born 1704 in Christ Church Parish in Middlesex County, VA, son of WILLIAM CARTER and MARY GOODLOE, I noted a dispute as to whether he was the same JOSEPH CARTER who appears in Spotsylvania County, VA from 1732 on, I asked the following four questions:

1) Are there connections between the Middlesex GOODLOE relatives of JOSEPH CARTER and Spotsylvania County? 2) Are there connections between CATHERINE AMMON, her brother Christopher Ammon, and Spotsylvania County? 3) Does it matter if the persons being so considered are Anglican, Quaker or Baptist? 4) What motivates a person to move from Tidewater Virginia to Virginia’s Spotsylvania or Brunswick Counties?

It is my plan to devote this page to discussing the answers to these four questions, and perhaps to raise additional ones.

1) Are there connections between the Middlesex GOODLOE relatives of JOSEPH CARTER and Spotsylvania County?

The following entry, in Spotsylvania County Deed Book A, 1722-1725; Antient Press; Page 52:

THIS INDENTURE made the Third day of August in the year of Our Lord one thousand seven hundred and twenty three; Between Henry Goodloe, late
of the County of Middlesex and now of the County of Spotsylvania and Parish of Saint George. Gent. of one part and Mark Wheeler of the County of Spotsylvania of the other part; Witnesseth that Henry Goodloe in consideration of the sum of five shillings to him in hand paid by Mark Wheeler the receipt whereof he doth hereby acknowledge, hath and by these presents doth bargain and sell unto Mark Wheeler all that parcell of land being part of a Survey made for Henry Goodloe for eighteen hundred acres of land and lying in the County of Spotsylvania and bounded; Begining at two white Oaks on the side of a Hill corner to the said Goodloe, thence North fourty five degrees East sixty poles to two red Oak saplins on the side of a Hill in Goodoe’s line, thence South twenty seven degrees East one hundred and eighty eight poles to a red Oak on the East side of a Ridge in GOODLOE’s cross line, thence South fourty degrees West one hundred and twenty five poles to a small white Oak on the North side of a small Branch, thence North one hundred and fourty poles to the place it first began containing one hundred acres of land according to the express bound thereof; To have and to hold the one hundred acres of land dureing the term of one year paying therefore the rent of one pepper corn at the Feast of Saint Michael the Arch Angel if the same be lawfully demanded to the intent that by vertue of these presents and the Statute for transerring uses into possession Mark Wheeler may be in actual possession and thereby enabled to accept a grant of the reversion and inheritance thereof to him and his heirs; In Witness whereof Henry Goodloe hath hereunto set his hand and seal the day and year first within written
Signed sealed and delivered in presents of us – Thomas Chew, Henry Goodloe, John Chew, Robert his mark Evenes

The following quotations are from Mansfield, James Roger, A History of Early Spotsylvania, Green Publishers, Inc., Orange, VA, 1977:

“On 4 May 1725, Henry Goodloe and Harry Beverley petitioned the court to have a road cleared from their homes to the new church on the River Ta. [Larkin] Chew, Beverley, and Goodloe were large owners along the Ta and Po Rivers and influential enought to get almost anything they wanted. The new church was named “Mattaponi”, possibly because it stood among the four princiapl branches of the Mattaponi River; the Mat, the Ta, the Po, and the Ni.” Mansfield, ibid., p. 59.

[WHB: JOSEPH CARTER's uncle, and the brother of MARY GOODLOE CARTER, was named Henry Goodloe. The reference to Henry Goodloe being "late of Middlesex County" makes it virtually certain that it is JOSEPH CARTER's uncle who became one of the first major landowners in Spotsylvania County at a time when JOSEPH CARTER, living in Middlesex County, was 18 years old. It doesn't seem implausible that the family group of Henry Goodloe, his sister MARY, the widow of WILLIAM CARTER, and her son JOSEPH might have supported the idea of the newly married JOSEPH establishing his residence in Spotsylvania County by 1733, after having had the marriage ceremony in Middlesex County where the groom's mother and bride's brother resided.]

“The presiding justices of the first court [of Spotsylvania County], August 7, 1722, were: Augustine Smith, Richard Booker, John Taliferro, William Hansford, Richard Johnson and William Bledsoe.

“These were the founding fathers and appointees of [Virginia Governor] Alexander Spotswood. Edwin Hickman was added to the court on June 2, 1724. Jeremiah Clowder had also been appointed but declined to take the oath. Henry Goodloe was swon in on July 7.” Mansfield, ibid. p. 108.

“At this time, Edward Franklyn was discharged as overseer of the road from Henry Goodloe’s to the church on the River Ta, and Samuel Ham was appointed in his place.” Mansfield, ibid. p. 133-134.

2) Are there connections between CATHERINE AMMON, her brother Christopher Ammon, and Spotsylvania County?

On 29 January, 1735, Banns were held for Christopher Ammon’s marriage to Mary Bristow. [Original data: National Society of the Colonial Dames of America in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Parish Register of Christ Church, Middlesex County, Virginia from 1653 to 1812. Richmond, VA, USA: Christ Church, 1897.]

Mary Bristow’s mother was MARY GOODLOE [CARTER] BRiSTOW, one of two known children born in the second marriage to John Bristow, after WILLIAM CARTER’s death.

JOSEPH CARTER and Mary Bristow were half-brother and half-sister. They respectively married a full-brother and -sister, CATHERINE AMMON and Christopher Ammon.

Henry Goodloe of Spotsylvania County (born in Middlesex County) was the maternal uncle of both JOSEPH CARTER and Mary Bristow. He was the brother of the mother-in-law for both CATHERINE AMMON and Christopher Ammon.



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Joseph Carter (1704-1751), Middlesex and Spotsylvania Counties, VA

 

 

WILLIAM CARTER [William Carter (1660-1711) Middlesex County, Virginia] and MARY GOODLOE had six children:

3-1 George Carter (born 1692) – listed as a grandson in the will of Mary’s father [George Goodloe (1637-1710), Middlesex County, Virginia]

3-2 Philip Carter (born 1694)

3-3 Ann Carter (born 1701), presumably named for her aunt.

1704

“Parish Register of Christ Church, Middlesex Co, VA from 1653-1812, Births” – the children of WILLIAM CARTER and second wife MARY GOODLOE:JOSEPH baptised Apr 30, 1704″

1706

“Parish Register of Christ Church, Middlesex Co, VA from 1653-1812, Births” – the children of WILLIAM CARTER and second wife MARY GOODLOE: Robert baptised Jun 30, 1706″

1708

“Parish Register of Christ Church, Middlesex Co, VA from 1653-1812, Births” – the children of WILLIAM CARTER and second wife MARY GOODLOEMary baptised June 20, 1708″

1711

1711, Feb. 5 – MIDDLESEX COUNTY DEED BOOK 3, 1709-1720…p. 286, KNOW ALL MEN by these presents that wee MARY CARTER, Henry Goodloe & Jacob Presson of Middx County are bound unto John Smith Genty first in Commission of the peace for the County in sum of three hundred pounds Sterl. this 5th day of February 1711. The Condition of this obligation is such that MARY CARTER Executrix of a WILLIAM CARTER deced who obtained a Probate of the last Will and Testament of the said Wm. Carter deced shall at all times fullfill thesaid Will and performe all the Law enjoyns in such cases that then the above obligation to be void otherwise to remain. (her) In the presence of us Jno. Curtis, MARY CARTER, Wil. Stanard (mark), Henry Goodloe, Jacob Presson.

[WHB: At WILLIAM CARTER's death, my ancestor JOSEPH CARTER was seven, with a five-year old brother Robert and three year old sister Mary. Also from the 20 years of WILLIAM CARTER's marriage to MARY GOODLOE, there is also a 19 year old brother George and 18 year old brother Philip.

There has been dispute among family historians as to whether the JOSEPH CARTER born 1704 and married to CATHERINE AMMON in 1731 in Christ Church Parish is the same as JOSEPH CARTER whose sons and daughters were born in Spotsylvania County, VA and who died in Spotsylvania.

Miller's 1922 book about the Carters of Lancaster County, VA that suggests that JOSEPH CARTER belongs with a different line appears to be the informational sources for the main dissenting voices. (See the letter from Margaret Baldock to WHB below). It is my intention to examine and augment the evidence that concludes that indeed the JOSEPH CARTERs of Middlesex and Spotsylvania Counties are the same.

I would ask four questions at this point. 1) Are there connections between the Middlesex GOODLOE relatives of JOSEPH CARTER and Spotsylvania County? 2) Are there connections between CATHERINE AMMON, her brother Christopher Ammon, and Spotsylvania County? 3) Does it matter if the persons being so considered are Anglican, Quaker or Baptist? 4) What motivates a person to move from Tidewater Virginia to Virginia's Spotsylvania or Brunswick Counties?

It is my plan to discuss these four questions, and, perhaps, add new ones, on the following page: The Carters, Goodloes and Ammons in Middlesex and Spotsylvania Counties, VA 1710-1750.]

1731

JOSEPH CARTER married CATHERINE AMMON  1 Dec. 1731 in Middlesex Co., VA.

Note: Data provided by Mrs Nancy S. Goodloe (Las Cruces, NM), Mrs Thelma L. Harper; Albuquerque; Mrs Lily Carter Thurman, Houston; Mrs Pattie M. Norris, Indianola, MS, helped identify descendents of Mary Goodloe Carter as of 1978.

 

Note: Elby F. Bowman, Shell Knob, MO, authored (1978)  The Ancestors of Joseph Carter of Buckingham County VA and Bath and Morgan Counties KY wrote “Joseph Carter and Catherine Ammon left Middlesex County VA shortly after their marriage as no further entries pertaining to them or their issue appear in the Christ Church Parish records. We next find them in Spotsylvania County VA per the following entries – -

3 June 1735 Robert Goodloe of St George’s Parish Spotsylvania County sells 190 acres to JOSEPH CARTER; also JOSEPH CARTER of St George’s Parish makes his will 19 Feb 1750 — probated 7 May 1751.

 

Crozier, William Armstrong, Spotsylvania County Records,  Southern Book Company Baltimore, 1955.
Will Book B 1749-1759 page 10

CARTER, JOSEPH, St. George’s Parish, d. Feb. 19, 1750, p. May 7, 1751. Wit. Robert Huddlestone, Wm. Pruitt, James Younger, Robert Durrett. Ex. wife, CATHERINE CARTER; Mr. John Minor and my son, John Carter. Leg. wife, Catharine; son, John, tract of land bought of Benj. Matthews; daughter Mary Carter; daughter, Elizabeth Carter; son, George Carter, son, Robert Carter, the land where I now live after his mother’s decease; daughter, Caty Carter.

______________

Excerpt of a Letter (dated June 6, 1989) from Margaret Baldock (Clovis NM) to WHB:

Dear William,

I have I think figured out the lineage back to 1660-ish as you can see by the enclosed family group sheets. I have not proven all as yet so I definitey don’t say that this is all for sure.

I feel pretty good about the WILLIAM AND MARY (GOODLOE) CARTER line and the reason for that is that we have a very good history of the Goodloe famly that was done in 1982 by Dr Paul Goodloe. He has established the Carter line for us as beginning with WILLIAM AND MARY CARTER. My mother’s maiden name is Goodloe.

JOSEPH CARTER md. CATHERINE AMMON  1 Dec. 1731 in Middlesex Co., VA.

WILLIAM CARTER’s will names sons Thomas, William, George and Phillip. He does not name any girls and not all his boys. In the Christ Church Parish Middlesex Co. birth records we find not only the boys named [in his will] but also JOSEPH baptised 30 April 1704, Ann, Robert, Mary and Elizabeth. However not all the children are named in the parish records either.

In 1741 John Carter made his will naming nephew (?) Sarah Rice, Brother (in-law) Robert Daniel, brother JOSEPH CARTER, brother (in-law) Mark Wheeler, sister Elizabeth Daniel and wife Mary Carter. Now, this Mark Wheeler is very important later on.

There is no further record of JOSEPH CARTER and CATHERINE AMMON in Middlesex Co., but there shows up in Spotsylvania Co. a JOSEPH AND CATHERINE CARTER. JOSEPH CARTER makes his will naming his wife CATHERINE, son JOSEPH, John, George, Robert and daughter Elizabeth. He also mentions that his son JOSEPH and his heirs to have the Tract of land he bought of Mark Wheeler. Christ church records –  ”, son of Mark and Sarah Wheeler baptized 3 Apr. 1720. There was no record of a marriage though.

3 Jan. 1749 – Mark Wheeler and Sarah his wife of Spotsylvania Co. to JOSEPH CARTER of same county 38 lbs 100 acres conveyed to said Wheeler by Henry Goodloe Gent., deceased as by deed, 3 June 1735. Wit. Robt. Durrett, James Younger, Maes Ham and Patric Kennedy.

Some other people that help make the connection of the Goodloes and the Carters are Robert Durrett. He married Elizabeth who was the daughter of Henry Goodloe, who was the brother of MARY GOODLOE who married WILLIAM CARTER.

JOSEPH CARTER appointed Mr John Minor as a witness and he was a brother to Diana Minor who married George Goodloe. Goerge was the son of Henry who was the brother of MARY GOODLOE CARTER.

The reason I’m giving you this information is that there was another Joseph Carter family living in Spotsylvania at this time and apparently had similar family names. It’s possible that they were cousins even. Dr Joseph L. Miller in his Descendents of Capt. Thomas Carter of ‘Barford’, Lancaster Co., Virginia published in 1922 attributes all the information in Spotsylvania Co. to Joseph from Lancaster Co. Some people will really argue that his reasoning is correct and I can show a great number of flaws.

Now I know that my Ammon Carter, b. ca. 1765 father’s name was Joseph because he shows up on the tax list right beside his father. I have no idea what his mother’s name was. In the back of my mind I keep thinking maybe it was Priscilla because I can’t find where that name came from, or as a matter of fact, where the name Nancy came from. Then there was the female child that we have no name for. Polly (Mary) could have come from her Great-Grandmother MARY GOODLOE CARTER.

I think that where we need to put our heads together is to try to prove or disprove what I have. You may have more or even a different idea that I do. You may have them going in a different direction, but as I told you before I like to have as much definite proof as I can get before I take it as ‘truth”. I’m too much of a skeptic for that. I also won’t take somthing just because someone says it’s so. . .

_______________

 

 

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William Carter (1660-1711) Middlesex County, Virginia

This will be the page for William Carter of Middlesex County, Virginia, and the genealogical information recorded about his life that has widespread acceptance.
*****

Life events during the reign of Charles II:

1681

“Parish Register of Christ Church, Middlesex Co, VA from 1653-1812, Marriages” – WILLIAM CARTER married Penelope Pew Aug 31, 1681

[WHB - An historical marker commemorating the site of Christ Church in Saluda (Middlesex County), Virginia may be found on General Puller Highway (Virginia Route 33( at the intersection of Urbanna Road (Virginia Route 227).

"Parish Register of Christ Church, Middlesex Co, VA from 1653-1812, Births" - the children of WILLIAM CARTER & Penelope Pew: Mary baptised Oct 23, 1681"

[WHB - child born two months after marriage?]

1683

“Parish Register of Christ Church, Middlesex Co, VA from 1653-1812, Births” – the children of WILLIAM CARTER & Penelope Pew: Thomas baptised Aug 5, 1683

Life events during the reign of James II:

1686

“Parish Register of Christ Church, Middlesex Co, VA from 1653-1812, Births” – the children of WILLIAM CARTER & Penelope Pew: Elizabeth born June 6, 1686″

1687

“Parish Register of Christ Church, Middlesex Co, VA from 1653-1812, Births” – the children of WILLIAM CARTER & Penelope Pew: William baptised Nov 6, 1687″

Life events during the reign of William III and Mary II:

1691

“Parish Register of Christ Church, Middlesex Co, VA from 1653-1812, Marriages” – WILLIAM CARTER married (2nd) Mary Goodlow Jul 2, 1691

1692

1692-1694 Richmond Co VA Orders; Antient Press: (Page 1)
Richmond County Court 4th of May 1692
- It is ordered that WM. CARTER be Constable ye ensueing year in the stead of William Griffin & that he do repaire to the next Justice of the peace to be sworn according

“Parish Register of Christ Church, Middlesex Co, VA from 1653-1812, Births” – the children of WILLIAM CARTER and second wife MARY GOODLOE: George Born April 22, 1692 and baptised May 22, 1692″

Life Events during the Reign of William III:

1693

“Parish Register of Christ Church, Middlesex Co, VA from 1653-1812, Births” – the children of WILLIAM CARTERand second wife MARY GOODLOE: Phillip born Dec 10, 1693 baptised Jan 4, 1694″

“Parish Register of Christ Church, Middlesex Co, VA from 1653-1812, Births” – the children of WILLIAM CARTER and second wife MARY GOODLOE: Penelope baptised Jul 15, 1694″ , Ann baptised Jan 23, 1701/2, JOSEPH baptised Apr 30, 1704, Robert baptised Jun 30, 1706, Mary baptised June 20, 1708 (this second Mary had Mary Goodloe for a mother).

1695

THIS INDENTURE made the 24th day of April 1695 in the Sixth yeare of the Reigne of our Lord & Lady William and Mary Between Francis Weekes of the County of Middlesex Gent. and Henry Williamson of the County of ESSEX Gent:

Wittnesseth that the said Francis Weekes for the sum One hundred and Sixteene pounds & Sixteene shillings Sterling money have granted unto the said Henry Williamson his heirs Five hundred and Eighty four acres of land it being the land whereon the said Francis Weekes hath formerly and doth now live in Middlesex County back in the Woods on the Dragon Swamp bounded begining at a marked tree upon a Greene Branch between the land of WILLIAM CARTER on the one side and this land now purchased on the other from thence So: to Mr. Henry Williams line thence So:E: thence along his line SW to the Dragon Swamp thence along the said Swamp tell you come to the Greene Branch so along the Greene Branch to the first mentioned marked tree
In presents of us Thomas Hill,
Francis Weekes
Elias Powell, Att a Court held for County of Middlesex the 6th of May 1695
Then personally appeared Mr. Francis Weekes and in open Court acknowledged the land this 24th of Aprill 1694.
above written Deed to be his act and deed
KNOW ALL MEN by these presents that I Francis Weekes doe owe and am bound unto Henry Williamson in sume of Five hundred pounds Sterling good lawfull money of Eng The Condition of the above obligation is such that if from henceforth peasebly possession of all that Plantation by him the above named Henry Williamson as by Deed may appear and procure & Elizabeth his Wife if Liveing – hir Relinquishement of hir right of Dower the above obligation shall be voyd otherwayes to romaine Wittness my, hand and seale this 24th Aprill 1695
In presence of us Hnery Hill, Francis Weekes
Elias Powell.

[WHB Note: The Dragon Swamp is several miles south of Urbanna, on the headwaters of an inlet of Chesapeake Bay. The directions from current day Urbanna along today's highways to the Dragon Swamp are as follows:Head south on Cross St/State Route 1005 toward Virginia St (390 ft); Take the 1st right onto State Route 602/Virginia St; Continue to follow State Route 602 (0.8 mi.); Turn left onto State Route 615/Town Bridge Rd. Continue to follow Town Bridge Rd (2.4 mi); Turn left onto US-17 S/Tidewater Trail Continue to follow US-17 S (3.9); Turn left onto VA-198 E/Glenns Rd (2.1 mi); Turn left onto Belleview Rd (0.8 mi); Take the 1st left onto Point of View Ln.1701 

"Parish Register of Christ Church, Middlesex Co, VA from 1653-1812, Births" - the children of WILLIAM CARTERand second wife MARY GOODLOE:  Ann baptised Jan 23, 1701/2.

Life events during the reign of Queen Anne:

1702

WILLIAM CARTER, 172 acs., Middlesex County, 28 Oct. 1702, p. 498. Adj. Mr. Francis Weekes; Seagar’s line; by the Green Br. in Jones’ line; patent of Abraham Weekes. Trans. of 4 pers: Robert Cook, Wm. Hamett, Judith Fluit, Thomas Hows

 

1704

“Parish Register of Christ Church, Middlesex Co, VA from 1653-1812, Births” – the children of WILLIAM CARTER and second wife MARY GOODLOE: JOSEPH baptised Apr 30, 1704″

1706

“Parish Register of Christ Church, Middlesex Co, VA from 1653-1812, Births” – the children of WILLIAM CARTER and second wife MARY GOODLOE: Robert baptised Jun 30, 1706″

1708

“Parish Register of Christ Church, Middlesex Co, VA from 1653-1812, Births” – the children of WILLIAM CARTER and second wife MARY GOODLOEMary baptised June 20, 1708″

1710

WILLIAM CARTER’s father-in-law GEORGE GOODLOE  dies.

1711

1711, Feb. 5 – MIDDLESEX COUNTY DEED BOOK 3, 1709-1720…p. 286, KNOW ALL MEN by these presents that wee MARY CARTER, Henry Goodloe & Jacob Presson of Middx County are bound unto John Smith Genty first in Commission of the peace for the County in sum of three hundred pounds Sterl. this 5th day of February 1711. The Condition of this obligation is such that MARY CARTER Executrix of a WILLIAM CARTER deced who obtained a Probate of the last Will and Testament of the said Wm. Carter deced shall at all times fullfill thesaid Will and performe all the Law enjoyns in such cases that then the above obligation to be void otherwise to remain. (her) In the presence of us Jno. Curtis, MARY CARTER, Wil. Stanard (mark), Henry Goodloe, Jacob Presson.


===
1694-1703 Middlesex Co Va Deed Book 2; Antient Press: (Page 16)

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John Johnson, Jr (?-1812/3) Bedford County, VA

1807

December 21,, 1807 – Bedford County Marriage Bonds: JOHN JOHNSON, JR to MARY ANN (POLLY) CARTER. Surety is JOHN CARTER

1810

Census of Bedford County VA, 467 [WHB- It appears that the entries for JOHN JOHNSON SR and JOHN JOHNSON JR are reversed.]

JOHNSON, JOHN, JR 00101-00300-10 [1 male over 45; 1 male 16-26; 3 females 16-26]

JOHNSON, JOHN, SR 00100-10100-00 [1 male 16-26; 1 female under 10, 1 female 16-26]

1809

A note from Fay Foster quoting (dated February 1980) abstracts from Walter Lee Hopkins’ The Turner and Leftwich Families of Virginia:

“My grandfather was born in 1809 and he married Sara Ware Johnson, daughter of JOHN JOHNSON. Both of my grandfathers John Leftwich and John Johnson, lost their lives in the War of 1812.”

[Note from WHB: The quote above was from the late Fay Foster's letter. Subsequently, Keith Harris provided me with the exact quote and its contest:

But on page 157 of Hopkin’s book, here’s how it’s worded:

(4) John Leftwich (Uriah, Sr., Augustine, Sr., Thomas, Sr., Ralph), married Pofly (Mary) Dickerson, daughter of Suckey Board, September 25, 1805, in Bedford County, Va. William Henry Leftwich, his grandson, of Bedford, Va., now eighty-eight years of age, writes, “My father (Joel) was born in 1809, and he married Sarah Ware Johnson, daughter of John Johnson. Both of my grandfathers, John Leftwich and John Johnson, lost their lives in the War of 1812.” ]

John Leftwich’s children: 1) John Leftwich, 2) James Leftwich, 3) Susan Leftwich and 4) Joel Leftwich who married Sarah Ware Johnson.

1816

Survey of the __nds the State of JOHN JOHNSON Junr, Dec’d, Exclusive of Widow’s Dower, Viz beginning at Ayers Corner & White oaks & Corner of the Widows Dower then on Ayres line N 41 W 180 poles to ____ Bird’s Corner then to Birds line N 56 W 64 poles to hit Dicksons Corner & Chestnut there on Dickesons lines by W 61 poles to a W o & c thence N42 ___ 50 poles to pointers thence S77W 112 poles to pointers thence corner of S 36 W 96 poles to Cundiffs Corner past oak on his line S 18 W 108 __ to a W O closing? his Corner and Joining Brons line to a W O & C thence S 52 E 67 poles pointers over of the Widows Dower then on the Dower lines N 32 E 97 poles to a Red oak thence N34 E 14 1/2 poles to a Red oak then East 97 1/2 poles to the first S tion Containing 349 1/2 Acres devided among the Legitees as followerh.

Lot #1 (49 acres) John Cundiff; Lot #2 (50.5 acres) Martin Johnson; Lot #3 (50.5 acres) David Johnson’s legatees; Lot #4 (50 3/4 acres) Jeremiah Ferguson; Lot #5 (49 1/4 acres) JOHN JOHNSON’S legatees; Lot #6 (49 acres) Polly Johnson; and #7 Nancy Johnson.

1834

At a court held for Bedford County the 26th day of May 1834. This allotment of dower to MARY MILES, late MARY JOHNSON, widow of JOHN JOHNSON, dec’d, was produced in Court and ordered to recorded.  Teste, R. C. MitBook A PAGE 358V?Exec’d?

1836

Note: Reference to deed book (Bedford County, VA) 1836: The following persons had to sign a deed  - Martin Johnson, Lucy (Johnson) Kenneth and husband Joseph S. Kenneth, Sally Johnson, and ELIZABETH and husband JOSEPH BURNETT. [WHB- Iff Sally Johnson were Sarah Ware, this would help confirm the JOHN JOHNSON, ELIZABETH JOHNSON’S father, was the Johnson who died in the War of 1812. Both Uriah Leftwich Jr. (Sara Ware Johnson’s uncle by marriage) and John Leftwich (Sarah Johnson’s would-be father-in-law) also died in 1812. Source: Fay Foster (Bedford County) letter of 9-30-1979.

 

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Julius Saunders (1720-?) New Kent, Goochland, Albemarle, Fluvanna Counties, VA

A critique of Saunders family history research:

[WHB - The dates and genealogical relationships from the following 2000 GenForum "Saunders Family Genealogy Forum" post from a K. Lund has been widely accepted by various persons researching the Saunders family history:

"Here are some bits that might be useful to you. The two family Bibles from which the data was copied out in 1880 have not been seen since 1913. Therefore, I can only say that the data is based on a transcript from Bibles augmented by my own research and the contributions of other researchers. [WHB - If both of these Bibles are indeed lost, it would be useful to have the description of what facts each Bible recorded without the "augmentations" from others' research.]

“These are the ancestors of Captain Julius Saunders, husband of Jane Hughes, according to those transcripts: Julius Saunders, Captain Rev. War. fought at the siege of Yorktown under Lafayette was born 12 Jan 1758 at Yorktown, New Kent Co, Colony of Virginia and died in August of 1821 at Bedford Co, VA. He had two wives. The order of their marriage is not given. [WHB - My current belief is that Captain Julius Saunders was born in Albemarle County. It is plausible to me that Captain Julius' grandfather resided in New Kent County around 1720 and that his father (named Julius) was born there.]

“One was a Miss Jane Hughes who died sometime after 1791 probably in VA and is believed to be dau. of Reece & Lucy Hughes. By her he had two sons and perhaps other children. Those sons were John G. ‘Jack’ Saunders [my husband's ancestor] and Julius Saunders [the line your queried about]. [WHB - I believe that Captain Julius Saunders was married only once and that his wife was Jane Hughes. I find it plausible that she died in the 1790s or early 18 oughts. I believe that the most recent common ancestor of John G[ardner] Saunders and myself is Captain Julius Saunders.]

The other wife of Capt Julius Saunders was a ‘Miss Woodward’ believed to be the Jemima Woodward sometimes attributed as wife to another Julius Saunders born 1720. [there may some sorting out needed here]. [WHB - I believe Captain Julius Saunders parents were Julius Saunders and Jemima Woodward, and that Captain Saunders did not marry a "Miss Woodward".]

The parents of Capt. Julius Saunders b. 1758 were George Saunders b. 9 Oct 1728 New Kent Co, Colony of VA and his wife Nancy Hatcher. [WHB - I believe this fact is wrong, but that the George Saunders-Nancy Hatcher idea needs to be explored, because of the later importance of the Hatcher family in relationship to my family in Bedford County a half century later.]

“They had 9 children : Julius [Capt in the Rev. War and our common research subject], Nancy, Elizabeth, John, James, Margaret, William, George W. and Richard. The parents of George Saunders b. 1728 were George Saunders b. 26 Oct 1682 New Kent Co, Colony of VA and his wife, Hannah Creed. They had 9 children: Barbara, Benjamin, Woodward, Thomas, Hannah, Mary, Nancy, Romulus and George.

“The parents of George Saunders b.1682 were Woodward Saunders b. 24 Apr 1632 Colony of VA and his wife Barbara King. They had 12 children: Elizabeth, William (a Quaker), Rolle, Margaret, Thomas, Hannah, Mary, James, Romulus, Barbara, George and John. The parents of Woodward Saunders were George Saunders b. 1 May 1574 England and his wife Elizabeth Woodward. They had 6 children: George, Thomas, James, Mehitable, Jerusha and Woodward.

“The parents of George Saunders b. England were John Saunders b. 6 Jul 1539 Wiltshire, England and his wife Jane Cathaside of Plymouth, England. They had 7 children: Rebecca, Susan, Martha, James, Benjamin, Roger and George. The parents of John Saunders b. 1539 England were Lawrence Saunders b. 8 Jul 1510 Cambridge, England [sometimes confused with Laurence Saunders b. 1520- d.1555 burned for heresy and a Martyr of the protestant church memorialized in 'Acts and Monuments' by Foxe whose parents were Thomas Saunders and his wife Margaret Cave] and his wife Elizabeth Kittewell. The had 6 children: John, Richard, Mary & Elizabeth (twins), George and Kittewell. The parents of Lawrence Saunders b. 1510 were John Saunders and his wife Jane Lawrence. [WHB - All of these family groupings need to be correctly identified. It is plausible that they are all related, but I am not convinced that any of this has been correctly proven.]

WHB -The history of Albemarle County is important to my family (not just the Saunders line.) This will prove important as these issues are discussed further.

Selected notes on the history of Albemarle County, from the Institute of Advanced Technology in the Humanites, University of Virginia, www.iath.virginia.edu.:

“The earliest known settlement in the area was an Indian village (Monasukapanough) located approximately five miles north of the present center of town on a hillside overlooking the Rivanna River. In the early 1700′s settlers traveled the major east-west route from Richmond to a pass in the Blue Ridge mountains named Wood’s Gap (Jarman’s Gap), paralleling the James and Rivanna Rivers. This thoroughfare, the Three Notch’d Road or Three Chopt Road, threaded its way through the Southwest Mountains east of the current town at the Rivanna River Gap following an Indian hunting path through the region.1. As this route proceeded from the Rivanna River heading to the west, it followed a long ridge line separating two major drainage areas. Settlement along a dry ridge line was a common strategy for early Virginia villages, although unlike Charlottesville with its inland location, most of the early plantations and villages in the colonial period occurred with close proximity to the estuaries and rivers feeding the Tidewater region.

“By the mid-1750′s land grants were secured for a number of large parcels within Albemarle County. The first patents were recorded in 1727. In 1735 Abraham Lewis secured 800 acres in an area that currently includes the University of Virginia grounds, and Nicholas Meriwether secured 1,020 acres in the eastern portion of contemporary Charlottesville (in addition to a much larger tract of land to the east of the Southwest Mountains). In 1737, patents were issued to William Taylor between the Meriwether and Lewis tracks; this tract encompassed the area that would later become the village of Charlottesville.

“All of these land grants were included within Albemarle County (named for the titular governor of Virginia from 1734-54, the Earl of Albemarle) when it was established in 1744. In its original formation, Albemarle was extremely large and its county seat was located “centrally” in the village of Scottsville (Scott’s Landing) approximately twenty miles to the south of Charlottesville on the James River. Concerns arose over the size of the county and the difficulty in conducting the business of the county seat within such a large and increasingly settled area of the Virginia hinterland. In 1761 Albemarle was divided, considerably reducing its size down to 750 square miles and placing Scottsville along the extreme southern edge. The newly defined county purchased a 1,000 acre tract from Richard Randolph in a more central location, and in 1762 Charlottesville was founded by an Act of the Assembly as the Albemarle County seat.

 

 

1720

JULIUS SAUNDERS, son of WILLIAM SAUNDERS and MARY born in New Kent County(?), VA [WHB Note: New Kent County's Saint Peter's Parish was split around this time into Saint Paul's and Saint Peter's. Presumably this record was from one of the two parishes. Which is the correct citation?]

1742

Goochland County, Virginia Court Order Book 5; Book 174; Blomquist, Ann K.; p. 99:

“The petition of Henry Martin against JULIUS SANDERS was dismissed with costs.”

[WHB: Assuming this JULIUS SAUNDERS is the son of WILLIAM SAUNDERS born in  New Kent County in 1720, he first appears at age 22 involved in a series of legal actions in Goochland County.

It is my current hypothesis that JULIUS SAUNDERS left New Kent County as a young man determined to make his fortune on land near the Western, upstream portions of the James River, and settled in what was then Goochland County and what is now Fluvanna County.]

1743

Goochland County, Virginia Court Order Book 5; Book 174; Blomquist, Ann K.; p. 244:

“JULIUS SANDERS was summoned to declare how much of the estate of Thomas Alsup he possessed for garnishment [apprently for debts owed by the estate].”

[WHB: Note that nearly a century later, the surnames Sanders and Alsup appear in the 1840 Pulaski County, Kentucky census.]

Goochland County, Virginia Court Order Book 5; Book 174; Blomquist, Ann K.; p.318, 363:

“JULIUS SANDERS was the plaintiff in a trespass case brought by Charles Turnbull in Goochland County, Virginia.”

1744

Goochland County, Virginia Court Order Book 5; Book 174; Blomquist, Ann K.; p. 410:

“The action of trover between David Pattison and JULIUS SANDERS, defendant, was continued.”

[Note the following definition from TheFreeDictionary  by Farlex:

"Early in its history, the English Common Law recognized the rights of a person whose property was wrongfully held (or detained). Such a person could bring an action of Detinue to recover the goods or, later, could bring an action on the case to recover the value of the goods. In the course of the sixteenth century, the action of trover developed as a specialized form of action on the case.

The action of trover originally served the plaintiff who had lost property and was trying to recover it from a defendant who had found it. Soon the lost and found portions of the plaintiff's claim came to be considered a legal fiction. The plaintiff still included them in the complaint, but they did not have to be proved, and the defendant had no right to disprove them. This brought the dispute immediately to the issue of whether the plaintiff had a right to property that the defendant would not give over to him or her. For some cases, it still was necessary for the plaintiff to demand a return of the property and be refused before he or she could sue in trover. It was reasonable to expect an owner to ask for his or her watch, for example, before the repairperson holding it could be sued for damages. The measure of damages in trover was the full value of the property at the time the conversion took place, and this was the amount of money the plaintiff recovered if he or she won the lawsuit.

Trover proved to be more convenient for many plaintiffs than the older action of detinue because a defendant could defeat a plaintiff in detinue by Wager of Law. This meant that the defendant could win the case by testifying under oath in court and having eleven neighbors swear that they believed him or her. In addition, the plaintiff in trover was not obligated to settle for a return of the property, regardless of its current condition, and did not have to prove that he or she had made a demand for the property if the defendant had stolen it. Since it was the plaintiff who selected the form of the action, he or she was more likely to choose trover over detinue."

Goochland County, Virginia Court Order Book 5; Book 174; Blomquist, Ann K.; p. 436:

"The petition of Phillip Weber against JULIUS SANDERS was continued in the July Goochland Court."

1746

From Magazine of Virginia Genealogy 26 (1989):269, Nance, Joanne, Lovelance; Albemarle County, Virginia, Court Orders 1744/45-1748": 

"John Biby, JULIUS SAUNDERS, Stephen Saunders, and Nathaniel Hoggett were ordered to give testimony for the King in the Albemarle Court against James Gains."

1747

From Magazine of Virginia Genealogy 26 (1989):269, Nance, Joanne, Lovelance; Albemarle County, Virginia, Court Orders 29(1991(94: 

"A Case brought by Abraham Allen against JULIUS SAUNDERS was dismissed in the court of Albemarle, Virginia."

Before 1749

JULIUS SAUNDERS marries JEMIMA WOODWARD, daughter of GEORGE WOODWARD.

1749

JULIUS SAUNDERS to William A. Moss, 250 acres. Adj William Burton, John Morgood, Edward Chamberlaynes, John Anthony and William Sanders. Signed JULIUS and JEMIMA SANDERS Land Deed 10 July 1749, Albemarle, County, VA.

c. 1750

Elizabeth Saunders, daughter of JULIUS SAUNDERS and JEMIMA WOODWARD born in Albemarle County, VA.

1752

Jesse Saunders, son of JULIUS SAUNDERS and JEMIMA WOODWARD born in Albemarle County, VA.

1755

Oct 1755 - Claiborne Saunders, son of JULIUS SAUNDERS and JEMIMA WOODWARD born in Albemarle County, VA. [WHBClaiborne is the surname of the most prominent citizen of New Kent County, VA in the 17th century. Is there a family connection between Claiborne and Saunders? ]

1758

12 January 1758 – JULIUS SAUNDERS, son of JULIUS SAUNDERS and JEMIMA WOODWARD, born in Albemarle County, VA.

31 July 1758 – JULIUS SAUNDERS grantee 335 acrecs on the south branches of the Rivanna River, Albemarle County.

[WHB: Note that the south branches of the Rivanna River flow through Fluvanna County into the James near the town of Columbia.]

1759

George Saunders, son of JULIUS SAUNDERS and JEMIMA WOODWARD born in Albemarle County, VA.

20 September:

John Payne, Josias Payne and George Payne, 3443 acres Albemarle Co on both sides of Crooks Creek, adj. William Bailey, Thomas Snelson, Thomas Jefferson, John Key, William New, Benjamin and Richard Cocke, Walter King, the said George Payne, JULIUS SAUNDERS, William Sanders, William Clement & Abraham Say; p. 650 15.5 pounds, 400 acs. part thereof formerly Gtd unto the sd George Payne by Pat. 10 Feb 1748/49 [PB 27 p. 138] and 3043 acs. the residue never before Gtd.

[WHB - Crooks Creek branch of James River is located in Fluvanna County.]

1760

Philemon Saunders, son of JULIUS SAUNDERS and JEMIMA WOODWARD born in Albemarle County, VA. [WHB -  Note the following: Pension Application of Philemon Saunders: S31347 . . . State of Virginia} County of Franklin} Ss On this 21st day of August 1832 personally appeared before me Benjamin Booth a justice of the peace in and for the County aforesaid Philemon Saunders Sr a resident of the County and state aforesaid aged sixty nine years . . . And the said applicant further states that he has no documentary evidence of his services & that he does not know of any persons by whom he can prove them except Julius Saunders Sr & perhaps Genl Joel Leftwich . . . NOTE: On 4 March 1837 Philemon Saunders requested a transfer of his pension from Franklin County VA to Shelby County KY, where he had moved because “he has five children living in Kentucky, all married and settled except one & that he wishes to come to Kentucky that he might not only be near them, but also living with one of them.”

[WHB-Philemon Saunders pension application in 1832 specifies his age as 69, which if correct would mean he was born around 1863. At the time Fluvanna County was part of Albemarle County.]

1763

Pleasant Saunders, son of JULIUS SAUNDERS and JEMIMA WOODWARD born in Albemarle County, VA.

1764

The will of WILLIAM SANDERS, dated 8 October 1760 and proved 8 November 1764 in Albemarle County, VA, leaves son JULIUS SAUNDERS 5 pounds of current money to him and his heirs forever; and to his grandaughter Mary Henson, after the death of Mary Hall, his wife, on negro woman Patt, one negro boy named Joe, negro girl Jenny, negro girl Sall, feather bed, furniture cows, etc. To my grandsons Clayborn and Jesse Sanders 400 acres of land wheron I dwell.

1768

WILLIAM SANDERS’ grandson-in-law Philip Henson claims that he and his wife Mary [SAUNDERS] are heir of several Negroes from the estate of William Sanders.

1772

On 10 Nov 1772 Rees Hughes and Lucy, his wife, of Goochland Co sold to Matthew Vaughan 75 ac in Goochland Co bounded by The Reverend Patrick Henry, Benjamin Woodson, Moses Broomfield, dcd, and  Matthew Vaughan.  Bk 10, p. 27 4.  They seemed to have then moved into neighboring Albemarle Co, where in 1777 he signed a petition to the Virginia legislature to divide Albemarle Co, forming the new county of Fluvanna, successfully passed through the Legislature by Thomas Jefferson.

Among the other signers were Henry Hughes, John Moody, Edmond Moody, and JULIUS SAUNDERS [WHB - Presumably, the elder JULIUS, husband of JEMIMA WOODWARD]

On 20 Oct 1787 Reese Hughes and Lucy, his wife, of Bedford Co. sold to Thomas Farrow of Fluvanna Co. 180 ac on Carey Creek, “land where Rees Hughes formerly lived “. (Bk 2, p. 242).  On 29 March 1800 Rees Hughes of Bedford Co. sold 190 ac in Bedford Co. to Jesse Hughes of Fluvannah Co., the land adj. to Robert Lazenby, Banner Bently, and Samuel Banks (Bk 11, p. 198). In April 1800 he sold 10 ac to Robert Lazenby.  No mention made of Lucy.

1777

Fluvanna County separated from Albemarle County.


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Julius Saunders (1758?-1821?) Bedford County, VA

The following correspondence was sent by WHB to the leaders of the Saunders DNA project:

Hi James -

A bit more information and some considerable questions on the Bedford County events of 1806-1810.

One of the websites I administer is a family history website, www.vikingsandvirginians.com onto which I am gradually adding all of the family history research that I have gathered over the past decades.

I will begin a page on JULIUS SAUNDERS that will attempt to do a forensic analysis of what went on between the 1790s and 1820s and the inter-relationships of Williamson Burnett, PRISCILLA CARTER BURNETT, Tempy Hatcher, JULIUS SAUNDERS and Jane Hughes Saunders and their children.

One determinant in this forensic analysis is my y-chromosome test, which the Sorensen Foundation notes matches perfectly (1 generation MRCA) the patrilineal line of JULIUS SAUNDERS (born 1758) through John Gardner Saunders (born 1791).

My direct ancestor, genealogically proven, is JOSEPH BURNETT, SR, son of PRISCILLA CARTER and repudiated by her husband, Williamson Burnett.) During the decade of JOSEPH BURNETT’s birth, Williamson was brought before the Bedford County courts for wife abuse, and, later in the decade, began an extra-marital relationship with Temperance Greer Hatcher, that produced an extramarital son, David Hatcher.

Williamson, in his Last Will and Testament, claimed that PRISCILLA had abandoned his “bed and abode” during the period that JOSEPH and his younger brother (Christopher Ammon) were born. The three sons who lived with Priscilla were apparently under the protection of JULIUS SAUNDERS, who provided legally-sanctioned apprenticeships for at least two of them.

[The 1823 will for Williamson Burnett says the following:" I  give to Williamson or William, Joseph and Ammon,  children of PERSILLA BURNETT one dollar each, two of the above named children, Joseph and Armon, have been born since PERSILLA BURNETT abandon(ed) my bed and abode"....

In 1820 William, JOSEPH and "Amos" (Ammon) sons of PRISCILLA BURNETT, were indentured to JULIUS SAUNDERS. According to court order books, PRISCILLA BURNETT, widow of Williamson Burnett, applied for a pension in 1843.]

However, at Williamson’s death, PRISCILLA CARTER BURNETT claimed his Revolutionary War widow’s pension and the Bedford County legal establishment, including Williamson’s eldest son (whom Williamson recognized as legitimate), testified that Priscilla had lived with Williamson for their entire life.

Without the y-chromosone evidence, this all would have been an exercise in guessing what the few recorded statements from the parties about what happened over two centuries ago.

Knowing that at least JOSEPH BURNETT, of the three sons, was properly a Saunders and almost certainly the half-brother of James Gardner Saunders, gives us something more to work with.

Subsequently, I have been contacted by a person who is my lateral fourth cousin from the line of Christopher Ammon. He took the y-chromosome test and determined conclusively that he, of Christopher Ammon’s line, is also a direct descendent of JULIUS SAUNDERS.

There is no doubt that JULIUS SAUNDERS, whose property adjoined that of JOSEPH CARTER, the brother of PRISCILLA CARTER, was the father of at least two of the three boys she had with her. In 1820 (which was after JOSEPH CARTER’S death, JULIUS SAUNDERS legally apprenticed all three of the boys).

I welcome any insights you have into this matter.  WHB. Please reply on the “responses” section below, or write me at ffvsearch@yahoo.com.

 

1758

12 January 1758 – JULIUS SAUNDERS, son of JULIUS SAUNDERS and JEMIMA WOODWARD, born in Albemarle County, VA.

1772

On 10 Nov 1772 Rees Hughes and Lucy, his wife, of Goochland Co sold to Matthew Vaughan 75 ac in Goochland Co bounded by The Reverend Patrick Henry, Benjamin Woodson, Moses Broomfield, dcd, and  Matthew Vaughan.  Bk 10, p. 27 4.  They seemed to have then moved into neighboring Albemarle Co, where in 1777 he signed a petetion to the Virginia legislature to divide Albemarle Co, forming the new county of Fluvanna, successfully passed through the Legislature by Thomas Jefferson.

Among the other signers were Henry Hughes, John Moody, Edmond Moody, and JULIUS SAUNDERS [WHB - if this is the elder JULIUS, husband of JEMIMA WOODWARD, his death dates are suspect. If JULIUS JR were born in 1758 he would be no more than 14 in 1772.]

1784

JULIUS SAUNDERS was deeded a tract of land on the north side of the Staunton River in Bedford Co. by James Greek et ux. (Land Book “G” p. 408)

1785

In 1785 JULIUS SAUNDERS, in a list of Bedford County VA taxable property and tithes, he is credited with “1 white over 21 years, 3 horses, 4 cattle.”

1787

On 20 Oct 1787 Reese Hughes and Lucy, his wife, of Bedford Co. sold to Thomas Farrow of Fluvanna Co. 180 ac on Carey Creek, “land where Rees Hughes formerly lived “. (Bk 2, p. 242).

JULIUS SAUNDERS is credited in the list of Bedford Co. taxable property and tithes, with “6 horses mules and colts; and 5 cattle.

1790

JULIUS SAUNDERS shows as a Head of Household in the Fluvanna County census.

1792

July 16 – John Grant of Bedford County VA bouth 100 acres from JULIUS SAUNDERS of Bedford County. Witness David Hughes, George Moody and William Martin [Land Book "I", p. 95]

July 16 – John Grant witnessed sale of 24 acres in Bedford County VA of John Woody [WHB-Moody?] and Lockey his wife, to JULIUS SAUNDERS all of Bedford Co. Other witnesses – David Hughes and George Moody. [Land Book I.]

1794

JULIUS SAUNDERS had 1 tithe, 2 horses.

1795

In 1795 and 1796 JULIUS SAUNDERS and William Martin owned 100 acres of land and 20 acres of land [Bedford County Land Tax Roll]

1796

Sept 24 – John and Edy Grant sold 50 acres to JULIUS SAUNDERS in Bedford County VA. [Land Book J p. 187.]

Sept 24 – John and Edy Grant sold 69 acres to John Moody of Bedford Co. on Merriman’s Run. 1800 (approx) – In Bedford County Farley Hatcher, administrator of Benjamin Hatcher’s estate = bounds John Grant’s line. [Land Book "J".]

1800

On 29 March 1800 Rees Hughes of Bedford Co. sold 190 ac in Bedford Co. to Jesse Hughes of Fluvannah Co., the land adj. to Robert Lazenby, Banner Bently, and Samuel Banks (Bk 11, p. 198). In April 1800 he sold 10 ac to Robert Lazenby.  No mention made of Lucy.

[WHB - Although there is, at present, no reason for me to believe that I have any of the Hughes family in my ancestry, including Jane Hughes, the wife of JULIUS SAUNDERS, I am adding a webpage on the interrelationships of the Hughes and Saunders, not only of Bedford and Fluvanna Counties, but New Kent and Hanover Counties as well, which I believe should prove instructive.]

JULIUS SAUNDERS and ux. conveyed to John Moody. [Land Book "K", p. 209.]

1803

On 9 Sept 18 03 Rees Hughes conveyed to JULIUS SAUNDERS all of his estate, both real and personal, SAUNDERS agreeing to care for Hughes in consideration of his infermity. (Bk 11, p. 823).  On 1 April 1800 Rees Hughes conveyed to JULIUS SAUNDERS title to “one Negro wench named Dinah and her son named John . … of me”. (Bk 12, p. 198).

1806

Susannah Moody 35 al. conveyed to JULIUS SAUNDERS (Book “L” p. 1) Fr Geo. Moody & ux. Rel Dower. (Book “L”L, p. 155)

From Susannah Moody &c [Book "L", p. 161.)

1814

JULIUS SAUNDERS, living on the premises, owned 100 acres of land on Staunton River, adjacent to Hodges, Grubb, Levi, Best, et al.; 59 1/2 acres, on the same river, adjoining the same men. Bedford County Land Tax Roll (quoted in Saunders research document).

1815

JULIUS SAUNDERS owns 100 acres of land on Craddock's Creek, adjoining JOSEPH CARTER's estate. Bedford County Land Tax Roll (quoted in Saunders research document).

"To Jno. Williams" (Book E. p. 264.) (quoted in Saunders research document)

1817

"In 1817 and 1818, JULIUS SAUNDERS (here listed as SENIOR) was taxed on 125 acres on Craddock's Creek, adjoining JOSEPH CARTER's estate. He had gained 25 acres since 1815, when he owned 100 acres at this place. Perhaps he bought the 25 acres from his son John, for in 1816 there was a transfer from "Jno. Saunders" [Land Book G p. 443.] On the same page of the book, there is recorded a transfer “To JULIUS SAUNDERS”.  (quote from Saunders research document).

“From 1817 to a date I cannot be sure of, this land on Craddock’s Creek continued to be carried in the name of JULIUS SAUNDERS; more was added to the original 100 acres, the final listing being 161 acres. One item so aded was 59 1/2 acres which seems to have been the same land that in 1818-1821 was carried in the name of John G. Saunders. [WHB-See my reference to my match with John Gardner Saunders DNA above.] This land was 20 miles south of the courthouse. (quoted in Saunders research document)

“The brother of George W. Saunders who removed to Kentucky was John G. Saunders. The reference above, showing a connection between John G. Saunders and Julius Saunders, is to me evidence that this JULIUS SAUNDERS mentioned is my ancestor. (quoted in Saunders research document)

 

1820

JULIUS SAUNDERS legally apprentices William(son) Burnett, JOSEPH BURNETT, and Christopher Ammon Burnett. Y-chromosome tests have proven that JOSEPH BURNETT and Christopher Ammon Burnett are descended from JULIUS SAUNDERS.

1821

CAPT JULIUS SAUNDERS died in Bedford County, Va., in August, 1821, as indicated in the letter from Samuel Newell to Tunstall Quarles hereintofore quoted. He was buried with military honors, as befitted “a good soldier”, who “had helped capture that old Scoundrel Cornwallis”.

“I visited Yorktown in June, 1937, in company with my nephew, Jim Bob Saunders, and Mr and Mrs George Kerry Wait, of Burnside, Ky. We spent a night at a small hotel situated very near the Yorktown Monument, looking across the broad expanse of the York River, and toward its junction with the Chesapeake Bay. It was a beautiful view, and we were thrilled to remember that one of our forefathers had a part in making history at that place.

“In 1936, Miss M. Lockie O’Bryan, of Owensboro, Kentucky was admitted to the D. A. R. on the record of Capt. JULIUS SAUNDERS. (quoted in Saunders research document)

1824

The marriage of Julius H. Saunders to Priscilla W. Carter in Franklin County, VA (the  county that shares  a boundary with Bedford County, seems absolutely certain to be pertinent to the relationship between my direct ancestors JULIUS SAUNDERS and PRISCILLA CARTER, but, I am certain, are of the next generation.

Ancestry.com. Virginia Marriages, 1740-1850 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 1999.Original data: Dodd, Jordan R., et al.. Early American Marriages: Virginia to 1850. Bountiful, UT, USA: Precision Indexing Publishers.

 

 

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Patience L Sudderth (1802-after 1870)

1823

24 Jun 1823 – Albemarle County, VA, RICE OAKS married to PATIENCE L SUDDERTH (SUDDARTH)

1825

MORTIMER OAKS born, son of RICE OAKS and PATIENCE L SUDDERTH.

c. 1828

Rice T. Oaks born, son of RICE OAKS and PATIENCE L SUDDERTH.

1830

Heads of Households (alphabetized), Albemarle County, VA, 1830 census:

Henry Oaks, one male, 0ver 70 and under 80 ( born 1750-1760); one female, over 70 and under 80 (born 1750-1760)

Andrew Oaks, one male over 30 and under 40 (born 1790-1800), one female over 5 and under 10 (1820-1825) two females under 5 (1825-1830)

RICE OAKS, one male over 20 and under 30 (born 1800-1810), one female [PATIENCE SUDDERTH OAKS], over 20 and under 30 (born 1800-1810), one male child [MORTIMER OAKS], over 5 and under 10 (born 1820-1825); one male child [RICE T. OAKS] under 5 (born 1825-1830).

c. 1831

Sarah Frances Oaks born, daughter of RICE OAKS and PATIENCE L SUDDERTH.

c. 1833

Elizabeth A. Oaks born, daughter of RICE OAKS and PATIENCE L SUDDERTH.

c. 1841

Alfred Oaks born, son of RICE OAKS and PATIENCE L SUDDERTH.

c. 1843

Evaline A. Oaks born, daughter of RICE OAKS and PATIENCE L SUDDERTH.

1848

18 March 1848 – Montgomery County, VA, Preston Brown Cosby marries Sarah Francis Oaks. RICE OAKS is father of bride.

1849

2 January 1849 - Botetourt County, VA, MORTIMER OAKS marries SARAH ANN BAIR (BARE). Father of the bride is DAVID BAIR (BARE).

1850

14 October 1750 – Botetourt County, VA, Rice T. Oaks married Susan Bear (Bare). Father of bride is DAVID BEAR (BARE).

1850

1850 Census, Montgomery County, VA, bottom of page 90:

618/618

RICE OAKS, 58, Cabinet Maker; PATIENCE [SUDDERTH] OAKS, 47; Elizabeth, 17; Alfred Oaks, 9; Evalina Oaks, 7.

[On the census page 88, is the home and family of an Abram Bare. He has a son David (not the same as the DAVID BARE.]

14 October 1750 – Botetourt County, VA, Rice T. Oaks married Susan Bear (Bare). Father of bride is DAVID BEAR (BARE).

1860

In the 1860 census, County of Hawkins, Tennesee p. 166:

RICE OAKS, age 65, Cabinet maker, Value of personal estate 200, born Virginia; PATIENCE [SUDDERTH] OAKS, 57; Alfred Oaks, 19, Evaline Oaks, 17.

1870

In the 1870 census, Jefferson County, Tennessee, PO, Witts Foundry:

RICE OAKS, age 75; PATIENCE L [SUDDERTH] OAKS, age __; Ecaline A. Oaks

 

1877

27 AUG 1877 – RICE OAKS dies. Both RICE OAKS and PATIENCE SUDDERTH are buried at the Russellville Cemetery, located in Hamblen County TN.

[Also buried in Russellville Cemetary are son Rice T. Oaks and wife Susan, and Evalina A. Oaks (never married), daughter of RICE OAKS SR and PATIENCE SUDDERTH.

 

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