Who Might Have Come to the Christening of Giles Carter in Cirencester?: A Speculative Essay

I suspect that a number of genealogists and family historians would generally agree with my opinion that a close study of 17th century wills, legal documents and various vital statistics records in Gloucestershire England could yield insights into the English immigration into Virginia in the 17th and 18th centuries.

That sentiment expressed, I will concede that sometimes that newly discovered or interpreted documents can disrupt widely held beliefs. A case in point is that of Gyles Carter of Gloucestershire and Giles Carter, an immigrant to Virginia who lived and died on Turkey Island in the James River, in the area of Richmond [See my timeline at Giles Carter (1634-1701) of Henrico County (Turkey Island).

To this day, some family histories identify Giles as the son of Gyles and through Gyles’ father and mother-in-law a long lineage of celebrated Englishmen and Normans.

The discovery of a small plaque in a Gloucestershire church memorializing Gyles and his wife Elizabeth Tracy as a childless couple created much confusion.

Subsequently, there surfaced the parish record of the  christening of a Giles Carter (who without question had both  a son and a grandson  named Theodoric) whose Gloucestershire dates matched dates imputed from Virginia records, thereby convincing many researchers that the correct lines of descendancy had been identified.

THe interior of Saint John the Baptist Church in Cirencester, Gloucestershire, England

The interior of Saint John the Baptist Church in Cirencester, Gloucestershire, England

A record of a Giles Carter being transported to Virginia (apparently when he was between 16 and 19 years of age), living and working on, marrying a girl named Hannah, and later dying on Turkey Island seemed convincing that Cirencester Giles became Turkey Island Giles in his teenage years.

Even so, the “case” for Cirencester Giles becoming Turkey Island Giles involves speculation, and, even more so, speculation surrounds such issues as to what Giles did on Turkey Island and who were Hannah’s parents.

Some who have wrestled with this question have concentrated on several documents, particularly passages in wills granting Giles and Hannah substantial gifts.

In each of these cases attempts have been made to impute some insight from how the language was phrased conferring the gifts and bequests into conclusions about Giles and Hannah’s employment, socioeconomic status, even their political leanings.

I think for the time being, we need more information, or need new strategies for analyzing what we already know, to move ahead.

My intention is to try an intellectual exercise, with no preconceived idea of what we might learn from it. The exercise will be to try to reconstruct a christening ceremony for the infant Giles of Cirencester, which presumably would have taken place at the imposing Saint John the Baptist Church, and to figure who in Gloucestershire might have been invited to it.

In attempting to collect some information on what each of these persons were doing at the time and whether there were matters with which any of the guests were wrestling in 1635 that would be useful to consider.

Anyone who has suggestions or information that would be relevant to this intellectual exercise, please contact me at ffvsearch@yahoo.com.

Officiating

Alexander Gregory, at this time is minister of St John the Baptist in Cirencester (which five years later King Charles I will recognize as underfunded, and will order the Bishop of Gloucester to install Gregory as Rector with proper funding and support. Gregory was, however, a supporter of the Parliament (as was much of Cirencester) and was imprisoned by Prince Rupert seven years later.

Guests of Honor

1) Theodore Carter, infant Giles Carter’s father. His first child Mary was baptized 26 October 1633. Three more daughters would be born afterward: Joane (2 Apr 1637), Elizabeth (24 Feb 1638), Margery (2 Dec 1641).

St Andrew Church in Cold Aston, restored in 1875, although West Tower is medieval; resized image of a Philip Halling photograph, from goegraph.org.uk.

St Andrew Church in Cold Aston, restored in 1875, although West Tower is medieval; resized image of a Philip Halling photograph, from goegraph.org.uk.

2) Gyles Carter, eldest son of John Carter of Netherswell. Gyles Carter is age 51 (calculated from a plaque in Cold Aston dated 1664 establing Gyles’ age as 80 at that time.) Gyles married Elizabeth Tracy, daughter of Sir Paul Tracy,  in 1606. Fifteen years earlier (1620) Gyles Carter travelled on the ship Supply, of whose outfitting Sir Paul Tracy was a financier, and on which four of his relatives were passengers, sailed to Jamestown, but  Gyles returned to Gloucestershire.

[WHB Note: Joy Carter Johnstone, a long-time Carter researcher, in 2007 posted his copy of a inscription on a plaque that is on the walls of the church in Cold Aston, where Gyles Carter’s manor was located. Guests 2 through 5 are all referenced on the Cold Aston plaque. Zieman’s copy appears below:

“Anno Dom 1664-Giles Carter the eldest son of John Carter of Netherswell
Co. of Gloucester, Esq. his two brothers being John Carter of Charlton Abbots
and William Carter of Bressnorton in Oxford married Elizabeth the daughter of
Paul Tracye of Standwell and DIED WITHOUT ISSUE.” Capitalization is Johnstone’s.]

3) Elizabeth Tracy Carter, Gyles Carter’s wife of 29 years (no children). Elizabeth was one of 21 children of Sir Paul Tracy. That she did not accompany Gyles Carter on the Supply might suggest that Gyles was assessing the prospects for Virginia enterprises, rather than intending to stay permanently. Four of Elizabeth’s Tracy relatives did take part in the voyage of the Supply and one, Joyce, with her husband, Nathaniel Powell, perished in Indian Massacres that took place there.

Charlton Abbots manor (right) and farm buildings. Reconstruction of a manor, originally built by Carter family. Only two gables are original.

Charlton Abbotts manor (right) and farm buildings. Reconstruction of a manor, originally built by Carter family. Only two gables are original. Photo by Philip Halling, as part  of the Geograph Britain Creative Commons

4a) John Carter, Gyles Carter’s brother of Charlton Abbotts. He and wife Ann are parents of the deceased Mary (Carter) Slaughter, wife of  the deceased John Slaughter, gent.; and Alice (Carter) Clarke, wife of Thomas Clarke of Charlton Abbotts

4b) Ann Partridge (Partriche) Carter, John Carter’s wife of 24 years

xxxx) William Carter, Gyles Carter’s brother, residing in Bressnorton in Oxford  [WHB-Brize Norton, Oxfordshire?]

[WHB – Subsequently, Ms Elizabeth Viney of Don, Tasmania, brought to my attention to following historical record “Mr William Carter of Brisenorton was slaine by one Jacob Byshopp, a stranger, in the street in the towne of Burford and was buried in the church of Burford”. That murder took place in 1627/8 and therefore William Carter must be removed from the list of possible guests at the christening.  See My Speculations on the 1635 Christening in Cirencester: A Response from Tasmania.]

However, in his place , Ms Viney names two other Carter relatives:

5a) Eleanor Carter Colles, daughter of John and Ann Partridge Carter.

5b) Humphrey Colles, son-in-law of the late John Carter and of Ann Partridge Carter.

[That a Carter daughter was married with someone with the same name as Humphrey Colles (1510?-1571), knighted by Catholic Queen Mary and member of parliament for Somerset during the reign of Mary I, suggests another line of research.]

The names of other Gloucestershire residents in 1635  known to have had or who arguably might have had some tie with Theodor and Giles Carter before, after, or at the time of the Christening will be added to this post.

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My Speculations on the 1635 Christening in Cirencester: A Response from Tasmania

Earlier, as in attempting to gain insights in the relationships between several Gloucestershire (England) ancesteral families with ties to Virginia, I speculated on who might have come to the christening of GILES CARTER in Cirencester in 1635.

I received the following reply from Elizabeth Viney of Don, Tasmania. My belief is that her response will open up a new line of inquiry. The new line is unexpected (but, of course, the purpose of that speculative essay was to learn new things.)

In a subsequent post, I will explore the vestry book of Petworth Parish in Gloucester, County, Virginia to study the relationships – to begin with – of the families surnamed Carter, Colles and Stubblefield. (We will also look for relationships with families surnamed Saunders, Kerley, Crump and Crewes.)

Elizabeth Viney’s Letter:

From: Elizabeth Viney <yineve64@gmail.com>‪To: ffvsearch@yahoo.com

Sent: Monday, July 27, 2015 3:21 AM

Subject: Giles Carter

‪Greetings William!

‪I came across your blog in my own research into family history, also being a descendant of the Carters. My own ancestor is Eleanor Carter, a sister of the Giles mentioned in the Cold Aston plaque. She married Humphrey Colles.

‪I read with interest your recent post about the christening of Giles Carter of Cirencester and believe I can fill you in on what some of the special guests may have been up to!

‪Sadly, William Carter of Brize Norton would have not attended the family celebration, at least in his corporeal form! He was involved in an incident in the town of Burford, Oxfordshire and in the words of parish priest who kindly included it in the register “Mr William Carter of Brisenorton was slaine by one Jacob Byshopp, a stranger, in the street in the towne of Burford and was buried in the church of Burford”.

He was buried on the 28th Feb 1627/28. His will is dated the same day and he is described as being “near death and wounded in bodie, but of sound and perfect mind.” His wife Bridget was granted probate in April 1628. They had two young children, Edward and John.

‪Interestingly, William’s son John Carter was also killed in Burford. The parish register reveals he died ‘of a wound received in a duel with one Mr Slaughter, gent.’ in January 1648. I wonder if this Mr Slaughter was a son of Mary Carter? I haven’t looked into this so that is purely speculation!

‪None of that really advances the story re Giles Carter any further but I thought you might be interested. It makes it all seems so very real and human.

‪Kind regards, Elizabeth Viney, (Don, Tasmania, Australia).

 My response to Ms Viney:

‪Dear Elizabeth –

‪Your information adds important detail to the Carter family story. It adds genealogical details that you have found to our family story.

‪This is exactly why I believe creating “speculative historical events” in an attempt to figure out who may be where at a point in time can help organize the genealogical data that is known.

‪I’m considering adding another “speculative event” – say, a party at the Tracy manor around 1619 planning the trip to the New World.

‪I have a couple of thoughts. First, I would like for you to allow me to post your letter (without your name, if you would prefer) about William Carter.

‪Second, I would like to help those of us working on these 17th century Gloucestershire families by adding details to what we know or think we might know.

‪Would you be willing to do this?

‪I’m so happy to have heard from you.

‪Cordially, Bill

‪William Burnett

‪www.vikingsandvirginians.com

Mrs Viney’s Subsequent Response:

‪Thanks for your reply Bill.

‪I am more than happy for you to post my story about William Carter and include my name. It is one way of building a network of people who are researching in the same area. If we all have different pieces of the jigsaw we won’t see the picture until we can put some of them together!  I would certainly love to be part of any sharing of information about the Gloucestershire families, as this area is of great interest to me and is very prominent in my own genealogical research.

I actually only stumbled across the William Carter information by chance as I was reading through transcriptions of the Burford registers on another family line. The name and place jumped out at me as names that I was sure I had in my data already. Sure enough, it was our William and a darn good story to boot! I can only assume that the family had business interests or property in Burford and that is why he was there.

Are you happy for me to include a link to your blog on my own blog. I only started it recently as a way to organize my own thoughts and also in the hope of finding other people with an interest in some of the same family lines as me.

I do have one question for you. How do you see the connection between the Theodore Carter of Cirencester and the other Carters in your speculative, and may I say delightful, scenario?

‪Looking forward to any future correspondence; I am more than happy to contribute anything I can.

‪Kind regards,

‪Elizabeth

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Giles Carter (1634-1701) of Henrico County (Turkey Island)

Note from WHB (May 17, 2015, Seoul, Republic of Korea)  

The Turkey Island Virignia highway sign

The Turkey Island Virignia highway sign

My last previous post regarding Giles Carter of Henrico County VA dated  January 5, 2012 (with some recent annotations. [See Return to Turkey Island: Giles Carter (1634-1700) Henrico County, VA.]

This current post begins a discussion of my (our) current thinking about Giles Carter of Henrico County, VA. Some of this is reflected in a letter to my research colleagues:

“I think we are beginning (or, at least, are on the verge of beginning) to get some deeper insights into what was going on in 17th century Virginia as it relates to some particular families on which we have spent some of our time researching.

“My sense is that we should get a better understanding of what was going on on Turkey Island in Henrico County in the 17the century, before the Randolph family (another one of my ancestral lines, by the way, having the distinction of being the earliest known (to me) mother in my maternal line of mother’s mother’s mother’s etc.) began building its 18th century mega-mansion.

“Giles Carter, whose progeny (son Theodoric with many siblings) is undisputed, is considered by all researchers known to me to have been born in Gloucestershire England. Everything else is a matter of dispute with some very sophisticated arguments to advance each theory as to from whom he descended and who he married or to discredit other theories on those subjects.

“Giles Carter may well have been a teenage indentured servant, with relatives, at least by marriage, of royal descendency. If so, his indenture occurred a few years, perhaps a decade, before a pair of Saunders (cited by Justin) came over to America.

“(There is a difference between the indentures of Giles Carter and the Saunders which I suspect we will find is important. Giles’ indenture conformed to a policy of the Cromwell’s Commonwealth. The Saunders came over when Cromwell’s associates were being hanged for high treason.)

“Now let me share with you my (current) radical thought. The Carters, Saunders, Crumps, Crewes, Sewalls et al. were involved in dynastic strategies (maybe not a monolithic strategy, but several strategies that collectively looked out for the economic interests and sought to secure economically viable positions for the younger members of the “clans”).

“That “indentured service” or “apprenticeship” positions were not lower class stable boys persuaded to trade years of labor for passage over to the new world, but devices by which the sovereign power granted subsidies (land for numbers of  indentured servants transported from England to America).

“The Merchant-Venturers of Bristol, who had suffered under the English Civil War, considered the tobacco of Virginia a game-changing event. If that is so, why not exploit the sovereign’s deal to grant land in Virginia in exchange for passage of “servants” to America.

“I am proposing that we re-examine the research on the 17th century immigration to Virginia in a new light. That we take with a grain of salt all 21st century explanations of what 17th century terms mean – indentures, land for passage of servants, even dowries and bequests.

“Instead, we consider the 17th century settling of Virginia as the concerted exploitation of “new lands” involving the sovereign power and a select number of families that have achieved power and influence over the centuries and are determined to exploit the situation to their advantage.

A corollary to the above argument of “concerted action by mercantile families” suggests that we consider wills and property transactions not just from the standpoint of nuclear families as we are used to thinking in the 21st century, but as sometimes (often?) part of dynastic strategies.

This is a timeline of documents relating to GILES CARTER.

1635

24 APR 1635 GILES CARTER, son of Theodor Carter, Christening:  Cirencester, Gloucestershire, England

1653

7 Apr 1653 – Virginia Land Office Patents No. 3, 1652-1655, p 192 – William Fry, 750 acres near the head of Chickahominy River, on the southwest side. Beg.g at Fleets Quarter, including a small Indian field, “being due unto the said William Fry – transportation of fifteen persons into this Colony…” First listed of fifteen is Giles Carter.

[The complete list consists of: GILES CARTER, Ralph Spendlowe, Jane Walker, Miles Noble, Anne Williams, William Brooke, Ralph Burton, Andrew Miller, Alice Archer, Willilam Hoccadie, William Fry’s wife, his three children and himself.]

1662

May 1, 1662. John Rowen of Henrico Co. willed to Giles Carter a cow and the use for one year of a house and land on Rowen’s Turkey Island estate.
[John Rowen was the stepfather of John Price III and Daniel Price, having married the widow of John Price, Jr. Daniel Price received a suit from the will of James Crews in 1676, and married Susannah, daughter of Giles Carter, in about 1691. Daniel Price died in about 1692; and Susannah married secondly Thomas Williamson.] One of the witnesses of this will was Margaret CREWS, daughter of Daniel LLEWELLYN and considered by some to have been the wife of James CREWES; if so, she must have died before 1676. Henrico Records p 229

1677

10 Dec 1677 Giles CARTER brings the will of Capt. James CREWS, dec’d, to Court p 143 (Index to Colonial Records [D&W] 1677-1692, Vol. 1, p 30)

1679

30 Apr 1679 Under “an act for the defence of the country against the incursion of the Indian Enemy” a tithe was levied to fit out men, horses, and arms. Giles CARTER of Turkey Island was listed with 6 tithes. (Order Book & Wills 1678-1693, pp 38/39) p 143
[This poll tax included the taxpayer, his sons, and his servants.]

1680

Apr 1680 Deposition of Giles CARTER, aged about 46. p 143 (Order Book & Wills 1678-1693, p 57)

1684

28 Feb 1684 William COCKE recorded a deed for land sold to Giles CARTER. On Turkey Island Mill Run beginning at upper beaver dam

24 Aug 1684 – “Wm. RANDOLPH of Varina Parish, Henrico Co. Gent. from Giles CARTER & Hannah(X), his wife, of Parish & C. afsd. 20 pounds strl., 60 a. which was by the last will & testament of Capt. James CREWES (dated, 23 AUG 1676) given unto sd. Giles & Hannah CARTER being part of ye dividend of land or plantation at Turkey Island of which sd. Crewes died seized, wch. Tract of land or plantation is since purchd. by sd. Wm. Randolph of ye heir & exor. of Sd. Crews, decd. as by conveyance dated 24 Augt 1684. Recd. 1 April 1685 Vol. 3, p 1380 6
(Henrico Co. Records 1677-1691, p 302)
[The Avant book (p 145) gives the date as 25 Feb 1684/5, and says 50 acres.

25 Aug 1684 William RANDOLPH acquired the entire 500-acre plantation from the heirs of James CREWES in exchange for “three acres and fifteen pounds of lawful money of England.”
(Henrico Co. Records 1677-1691, p 303) Vol. 3, p 1380 6

1685?

15 Mar 1685? Deed from Wm. COCKE to Giles CARTER for 59 acres, between Wm. COCKE and his brother Jno. p 145 5

15 Mar 1685? Deposition of Robt BULLINGTON as to a game of dice in which Giles CARTER won 500 lbs. of tobacco from Chas.STEWARD p 1

1686
4 Feb 1686 Upon the petition of Giles CARTER, one of ye surveyors of the highways, that he is ancient, weak and sickly and therefore uncapable of performing his sd. office. It is ordered that he be released and discharged from ye same. p 149 5
(Henrico Co Colonial Records, Vol. 2, p 229)
[He would have been 52 years of age if he was born in 1634]

1 Jun 1686 Payments to Giles CARTER as his legacy from the estate of James CREWES, dec’d p 146
(Henrico Co. Colonial Records [D&W] 1677-1692, Vol 1, p 369)

1687

1 Jun 1687 The will of Wm. Humphrey decd. proved by oath of Capt. Wm. RANDOLPH,a witness thereto; & order for probat thereof granted Margarett, wife of Maurice FLOYD, ye Exectrx. therein named. Robt. POVALL & Jno.WATSON enter themselves securities. Giles CARTER, John ANOT, Robert POVALL & Danl. PRICE appointed appraisers of sd.estate. p. 1299

June 1, 1687. Certificate granted to Giles Carter for 800 acres of land for the importation of 16 persons.

There is no dispute that GILES CARTER of Turkey Island, Henrico County, Virginia, was the father of THEODORIC CARTER, my ancestor, and other offspring. Virtually everything else about him  – his birthplace, birthdate, parents, wife, wife’s parents, and Giles’position in Virginia society is in dispute.

Some of the disputes have been hinted at in a previous post and its subsequent notes [See ]

1694

August 1, 1694. Giles Carter, Senr. acknowledged a conveyance of 550 acres of land unto John Cocke. Hannah acknowledged her Right of Dower.

August 1, 1694. Giles Carter and Theodorick Carter [father and son] witnessed a deed of Richard Cocke, Jr. of Charles City County to Thomas Williamson of Henrico County.

1701

GILES CARTER’S DEATH BEF 02 FEB 1701/02 in Varina Parish, Henrico, Virginia, USA 4

2 Mar. 1701. Theodorick Carter, of Henrico Co. conveys to John Pleasants of same, for 10-000 lbs. tobo. and cask, 50 acres in Henrico Co. whereon said Carter dwells on N. side of James River, in place known as the Low ground adjoining land of said Carter ‘s father Giles Carter, decd. running along Turkey Island Run, and given said Carter by his father Giles Carter (Ibid. 270)

2 Mar. 1701 . John Pleasants, Henrico Co. to Theodorick Carter, same Co. for 10-000 lbs. tobo. and cask, conveys 75 acres on S. side of Chickahominey Swamp on place known as the Round Hills (Ibid. 271)

WILL OF GILES CARTER
In the name of God, Amen, I Giles Carter, Sr., being of a weak and infirmed body, yet (blessed by God) of a sound and perfect memory, and considering the frailty and uncertainty of man’s life, and not knowing the time of my departure of life;
I do make, constitute, and appoint this my last will and testament hereby revoking all other wills by me heretofore made whatsoever.
Imprimis, I commend my soul into the hands of my Blessed Redeemer Jesus Christ, relying only upon his merits for salvation. My body I commit to the earth to be decently therein interred and for what worldly goods and possessions God hath bestowed upon me, it is my will and desire they may be disposed of in form and manner following:

I give and bequeath to my son Theodorick Carter five shilling sterling to be paid by my dear wife Hannah either in silver or to the full value thereof as to her shall seem most convenient.

Item. I give to my daughter Susanna, now Wife of Thomas Williamson, five shilling sterling to be paid as above said.
Item. I give and bequeath to my daughter Mary, now Wife of Thomas Davis, five shilling sterling to be paid as above said.
Item. I give to my daughter Ann, now the wife of James Davis, one feather bed and bolster, one rug, one blanket, and one cow.
Item. I give to my son Giles one mare called Nanny with her increase forever, it being a mare formerly given to him by William Sewell, she then being but a filly.

These legatees being paid and also any debts however shall be lawfully by me indebted being fully satisfied, it is my will and desire that what of my estate shall remain (one feather bed and furniture only excepted for my wife Hannah which I give unto her), may be equally divided to five parts, the one part whereof to belong to my wife Hannah, the other to my son Giles, it not being my intent or design in any way to hereby disannul or make void a deed of gift formerly by me made to my son Giles and entered upon record. But, I do by this, my last will and testament, reaffirm and confirm the same.

Item. It is my will and design that what estate shall appertain to my son Giles that he may retain the land where he shall arrive on by age of eighteen years and also enjoy the benefit of his labor. My wife Hannah not being any wise molested or disturbed upon the plantation we now live upon during her life.

and lastly, I make constitute and appoint my dear and loving wife Hannah full and sole executor of this my last will and testament, the which I own to be my last, all others being hereby disannulled and made void. As witness my hand and seal this 14th day of December 1699.

Giles (seal of red wax) Carter.
Signed, sealed, and delivered in presence of us: Thomas Smythes, William Sewell, James Davis.
Henrico Co., February 2, 1701.
Proved in open court by the oaths of the subscribed witnesses to be the last will and testament of the subscribed Giles Carter.
James Cocke, County Clerk.
(Henrico Co., Virginia, Records, p. 256)

December 10, 1701. John Cocke sold 550 acres to Thomas Williamson. The land was described as a parcel sold to Cocke by Giles Carter, Sr.

1702

February 2, 1702. Hannah Carter granted probate of the will of her husband Giles Carter.
(Henrico Co., Virginia, Records, p. 279)

1711

7 Jan. 1711, John Pleasants, Henrico parish and Co. for 5000 lbs. tobo. conveys to Giles Carter same parish and county, 94 acres in same parish and county S. side Chickahominey Swamp

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Selected Entries from an Index of 16th and 17th Century Gloucestershire Wills

vikingsandvirginians.com

vikingsandvirginians.com

The following index of Gloucestershire (England) wills is part of a digitizing process that took place in 2014. I have selected ancestral names and related names contained in that index for further

research:

Source: GLOUCESTER WILLS, 1541 TO 165O (ALSO “DISPERSED WILLS” AND “PECULIARS” OF BISHOP’S CLEEVE AND BIBURY).

 

 

1550

Saunders, John [abode not given]

Holy Trinity Church Badgeworth, GLoucestershire

Holy Trinity Church
Badgeworth, GLoucestershire

Gloucestershire Wills 5

Crump, John, Badgworth [Badgeworth] [1545]

[Badgeworth is a village in the Tewkesbury district of Gloucestershire, between Gloucester and Cheltenham. Holy Trinity, Badgeworth is set in countryside . The older part of the church is an architecturally ornate early 14th century aisle with ball-flower moulding, considered to be the best example of the medieval decorated style in Gloucestershire.]

Gloucestershire Wills 6

Crumpe, Philip [1545?]

Crump, James, Westbury [1546]

Crump, Roger, Westbury [1546]

Gloucestershire Wills 8

Crumpe, John, Rodley, Westbury [1548]

Wikipedia describes Rodley in Gloucestershire as “a settlement in Westbury-on-Severn parish, Forest of Dean District, Gloucestershire, England. It lies to the south east of Westbury-on-Severn, surrounded on three sides by a loop of the River Severn”

[See my discussion of Westbury-on-Severn and the religious dissent ther at Quakers in Gloucestershire and Other Possible Ties with New Kent County VA.]

A map of the Severn River, showing locations of Bristol, Gloucester and Cheltenham. Westbury-on-Severn is a red dot at the Northeast curve of the Severn.

A map of the Severn River, showing locations of Bristol, Gloucester and Cheltenham. Westbury-on-Severn is a red dot at the Northeast curve at the Severn’s source.

[See also my quote from “Albion’s Seed”, Y-Chromosome “MRCAs”, and Clues Found in Gloucestershire  “Note also that in the town of Westbury-on-Trym, to the North of the seaport town of Bristol in Gloucestershire (mentioned in the Armourer’s documents in 16th Century Gloucestershire, elsewhere on this website) resides the Saunders family.”]

[See also the reference “The king’s liberty of the duchy of Lancaster which extended within the hundreds of Bledisloe, Westbury [and] Botloe.; Huntley: John Stratford: 19s 4d.” in Miscellaneous Documents from Early 16th Century Gloucestershire

Gloucestershire Wills 12

Crumpe, William, Chursden, c. [1547] [Churston Court was a 12th century manor in Gloucestershire.]

Saunders, William, Bradwell [Broadwell] [1547]

A 12th century Norman frieze in the market town of Broadwell, Gloucestershore

A 12th century Norman frieze at Saint Paul’s Church  in the market town of Broadwell, Gloucestershore

[Broadwell is a village and civil parish in the English county of Gloucestershire. It is about 1.5 miles (2.4 km) north of Stow-on-the-Wold. (From wikipedia.com]

From Richard Tracy (1501-1569) Stanway, Gloucestershire, U. K., “A Military Survey of Gloucestershire (1522), excerpts by WHB: Slaughter Hundred; Broadwell: John Carter 20 lbs., p.88; Upper Slaughter: Richard Tracy 10 sh., p.96″

Saunders, John, Avening [1548]

Doorway of the Church of the Holy Cross in Avening

Doorway of the Church of the Holy Cross in Avening

[From British History Online: “The ancient parish of Avening, two miles north of Tetbury, comprised two detached portions separated by a small area of Cherington parish: the larger, western portion, containing the village of Avening, part of Nailsworth, and the hamlets of Forestgreen and Windsoredge was elongated in shape, stretching for seven miles from the Inch brook on the northwest to near the Tetbury-Cirencester road on the south-east.”]

Saunders, John, Avening (inv.) [1548]

Gloucestershire Wills 16

Saunders, Agnes, Bradwell (Broadwell) [1551]

Dursley, an 1879 painting by Edward Smith now in GLoucester Museum.

Dursley, an 1879 painting by Edward Smith now in GLoucester Museum.

Crewes, Thomas, Dursley [1551]

[Dursley is a market town under the North East flank of Stinchcombe Hill, and about 6 km South East of the River Severn. Dursley gained borough status in 1471 and lost it in 1886.]

Saunders, Giles, Uley [1552]

[Uley is situated in a wooded valley in the Cotswold escarpment, between Dursley and Stroud. During the Industrial Revolution, the village was renowned for producing blue cloth.]

Crumpe, James, Rodley, Westbury [1552]

Gloucestershire Wills 21 

Saunders, Thomas, Ashleworth [1555]

A Norman window set in a older Saxon door in parish church of Sts Andrew and Bartholomew, Ashleworth,

A Norman window set in a older Saxon door in parish church of Sts Andrew and Bartholomew, Ashleworth,

[Ashleworth is a village in the Tewkesbury district, about six miltes north of Gloucester.  The oldest part of the village is Ashleworth Quay, on a flood plain on the west bank of the River Severn.

An ancient ferry, which used to link Ashleworth Quay to Sandhurst village on the east bank of the river closed in the 1950s. In medieval times the Quay was a major crossing point for the river as the flood meadows here are narrower than they are for many miles upstream. Consequently, Ashleworth would have been the last place from which to cross before reaching the outskirts of Tewkesbury, nearly eight miles upstream.

Near the Quay is the ancient parish church of Saints Andrew and Bartholomew, the Manor, the Court, the historic Tithe Barn and the Boat Inn which has been run by the Jelf family for nearly 400 years.

The village was mentioned in the Domesday Book (1086), at which time it was called Escelesworde, which translates loosely as Aescel’s farmstead, or enclosure. After the Norman Conquest the manor was held by the Earls of Berkeley,  but in the 12th century Robert Fitzharding, the earl at that time, gifted Ashleworth to St Augustine’s Abbey, Bristol. Henry VIII  later gave the manor to the Bishop of Gloucester. [Infro from wikipedia.com.]

Saunders, Thomas, Tewkesbury [1555]

An illustration of the Battle of Tewkesbury (1471) from an old illustration

An illustration of the Battle of Tewkesbury (1471) from an old illustration

[See the following notation, quoting www.cotswold.info cited at Ancestral Families and the Colonial Trade (1633-1637)“It was during the 16th and early 17th centuries that the area around Winchcombe was extremely poor , it was during this period that a family named Tracy established themselves at Toddington, the eldest son Sir John Tracy became involved with a John Stratford who was related to him by marriage, they set up a business together to grow tobacco in the area, with plantations at Toddington and Bishops Cleeve. “Tobacco was widely grown on the Cotswolds, the Vale of Tewkesbury and in an area which extended as far south as Wiltshire.

[See also Richard Tracy (1501-1569) Stanway, Gloucestershire, U. K. “According to the History of Parliament: [O]n 15 Jan. 1533, shortly before setting out for London to attend the fifth session [of Parliament] (which began on 4 Feb.) [RICHARD TRACY] wrote, presumably from Gloucestershire, to an unamed friend, recounting the sotry and promising to explain the situation to [Thomas] Cromwell who, he had heard, was commissioned to investigate. Whether Cromwell was brought into the affair, or whether, as some versions suggest, even the King took it up, does not appear.

“Cromwell was of assistance to Tracy in other spheres and helped him to obtain several properties and leases: on 16 Feb., during the fifth session, the abbot of Tewkesbury agreed to the minister’s suggestion to grant him the manor of Stanway, which immediately became his home. Tracy’s name appears in several of Cromwell’s memoranda, and it is evident that the two men were close.”

From Gloucestershire Documents: Medieval Manors and Estates Associated with Carters and Related Families, Part 1, quoting the Victoria History of Gloucester, v. 8, p. 223 “In 1086 there were 12 servi and ancillae on the 5-hide estate at Oxenton belonging to the Tewkesbury manor, and the demesne was cultivated with 5 teams (40) (40) Dom. Bk.(Rec. Com.) i 163v.”

[WHB Note: An examination of the children of Sir Paul Tracy and his wife Anne Shakerley yeilds the informaiton that the 11th child, born 1602, was a male given the name “Saunders Tracy”. The child did not survive infancy, but the name appears to confirm that the Tracy and Saunders [and also Carter] families had close relationships.]

Saunders, Thomas, Maisemore [1555]

A view of the Severn from Maisemore Bridge (from the photograph.org/uk project

A view of the Severn from Maisemore Bridge (from the photograph.org/uk project

[Maisemore is 2.5 miles northwest of Gloucester on the west bank of the River Severn.  There is a church, dedicated to St Giles.]

Sanders, John [1556]

Gloucestershire Wills 22

Saunders, Alice, Maisemore [1557]

Carter, William, Broadwell [1557]

Gloucestershire Wills 28

Saunders, Hugh, Maisemore [1558]

Saunders, John, Stow [1558]

The Eagle and Child Pub of Stow-on-the-Wold, said to be nearly 1100 years  old (dating from 947)

The Eagle and Child Pub of Stow-on-the-Wold, said to be nearly 1100 years old (dating from 947)

[Stow-on-the-Wold is a small market town situated on top of an 800 ft (244 m) hill, at the convergence of a number of major roads through the Cotswolds, including the Fosse Way. The town was founded as a planned market place by Norman lords to take advantage of trade on the converging roads. Fairs have been held by royal charter since 1330 and an annual horse fair is still held on the edge of the town.]

Gloucestershire Wills 29

Saunders, John, Cirencester [1558]

The following is extracted from the wikipedia.com article on Cirencester: “At the Norman Conquest the royal manor of Cirencester was granted to the Earl of Hereford, William Fitz-Osborne, but by 1075 it had reverted to the Crown. The manor was granted to Cirencester Abbey, founded by Henry I in 1117 . . . The manor was granted to the Abbey in 1189, although a royal charter dated 1133 speaks of burgesses in the town.

“The struggle of the townsmen to prove that Cirencester was a borough, and thus gain the associated rights and privileges, probably began in the same year . . .

Castle Street in Cirencester

Castle Street in Cirencester

Sheep rearing, wool sales, weaing and woolen broadcloth and cloth-making were the main strengths of England’s trade in the Middle Ages, and not only the abbey but many of Cirencester’s merchants and clothiers gained wealth and prosperity from the national and international trade. The tombs of these merchants can be seen in the parish church, while their fine houses of Cotswold stone still stand in and around Coxwell Street and Dollar Street. Their wealth funded the rebuilding of the nave of the parish church in 1515-30, to create the large parish church, often referred to as the “Cathedral of the Cotswolds”. Other wool churches can be seen in neighbouring Northleach andChipping Campden.]

I wrote extensively on Cirencester in Giles Carter (1634-1700) Henrico County, VA,

Gloucesterhire Wills 30

Saunders, John, Cirencester [1558]

Gloucestershire Wills 31

Saunders, Roger, Cirencester [1558]

Saunders, Thomas, city of Gloucester [1558]

An interior of Gloucester Cathedral

An interior of Gloucester Cathedral

[The following is extracted from wikipedia.com: “King Henry II granted the first charter in 1155, which gave the burgesses [of Gloucester] the same liberties as the citizens of London and Winchester, and a second charter of Henry II gave them freedom of passage on the River Severn. The first charter was confirmed in 1194 by King Richard I.  The privileges of the borough were greatly extended by the charter of King John (1200), which gave freedom from toll throughout the kingdom and from pleading outside the borough.

In the Middle Ages the main export was wool which came from the Cotswolds and was processed in Gloucester; other exports included leather and iron (tools and weapons). Gloucester also had a large fishing industry at that time.

Saunders, William, city of Gloucester [1558]

Gloucestershire Wills 32

Crumpe, William, Leckhampton [1558]

A bay window at Leckhampton Court

A bay window at Leckhampton Court

[The following was extracted from wikipedia.com “Leckhampton is a district in south Cheltenham. . . .The old village of Leckhampton stands at the foot of Leckhampton Hill, around the medieval parish church of St Peter’s. . . Leckhampton Court is a mediaeval manor house dating from about 1320, built by the Giffard family of Brimpsfield.”

Gloucestershire Wills 35

Crumpe, John, Tyriey [Tirley] [1560]

The parish church in Tirley.

St Matthew parish church in Tirley.

[TIRLEY (St. Matthew), a parish, in the union of Tewkesbury, partly in the Lower division of the hundred of Westminster, and partly in that of the hundred of Deerhurst, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 8 miles (N. by E.) from Gloucester. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.]

Gloucestershire Wills 39 

Crumpe, Agnes, Westbury [1563]

Saunders, Wilham, Witcombe [1563]

Crompe, Elizabeth, Westbury [1567]

Gloucestershire Wills 54

Sewell, John, Stroud [1573]

[Stroud is amarket town, situated below the western escarpment

Saunders, William, Gloucester [1571]

Gloucestershire Wills 59

 Saunders, Thomas, Bledington [1574]

[In my post Winchcombe and the Benefactors of Henry VIII’s Dissolution of the Monasteries, I referred to Bledington as one of the revenue-producing properties of Winchcombe Abbey.]

[According to wikipedia.com, “Bledington is a village . . . about four miles south-east of Stow-on-the-Wold [and is on] the River Evenlode . close to the  Gloucestershire-Oxfordshire boundary . . .]

Saunders, Margery, Maisemore [1574]

Gloucestershire Wills 69

 Crompe, John, Rodley Wes[t]bury [1579]

Gloucestershire Wills 70

 Crumpe, Thomas, Wes[t]bury [1579]

Carter, William, Arlingham [1579]

[Arlingham (St. Mary The Virgin) is  1½ mile (S. E. by E.) from Newnham. The parish church is St Mary The Virgin. The town  is situated on a nook of land formed by a curvature of the Severn, by which river it is bounded on three sides, and across which is a ferry to Newnham .There is a place of worshipfor Wesleyans.]

Gloucestershire Wills 71

Crewe, Peter, Titherington [Tytherington] [1580]

Crompe, John, Leckhampton [1580]

1581 Gloucestershire Wills 72

Crumpe, John, Tirley [1581]

Crewe, Isabel als. Eliz., Titherington [Tytherington] [1581]

Crewe, Edmund, Deilham [1583]

Drew, Crew, Thomas, Alderley [1583]

[Alderley (also previously known as Alderleigh[) is a village about fourteen miles southwest of Stroud and two miles south of Wotton-under-Edge. ]

Crew, John, BItton [1583]

Gloucestershire Wills 82 

The parish church in Hartpury

The parish church in Hartpury

Saunders, John, Hartpury [1587]

[Hartpury is a . . . village [that] is about 5 miles (8 km) north of Gloucester.]

Sewell, Walter, Bisley [1593]

Crewe, Joan, Kingscote [1593]

Crumpe, Silvester, Westbury [1595]

Gloucestershire Wills 83

Crewe, Thomas, Marshfield [1597]

Crumpe, Richard, Whittington [1599]

Gloucestershire Wills 105 1599-

Crumpe, John, Westbury [1599]

Gloucestershire Wills 118 

Cromp, Jane, Westbury [1606]

Gloucestershire Wills 120 

Crompe, Giles, Naunton [1607]

A dovecote in Naunton

A dovecote in Naunton

[In my post Miscellaneous Documents from Early 17th Century Gloucestershire I quoted “The Hundred of Kiftesgate (pp. 77- Nauntone: Whereof Sr John Tracy knight is lord.; Todington: Whereas Sr John Tracy knight is lord. Smith, John, Men and Armour for Gloucestershire in 1608, Alan Sutton, 1980, p.85.”

Saunders, John, Bledington [1607]

[In my post Winchcombe and the Benefactors of Henry VIII’s Dissolution of the Monasteries, I referred to Bledington as one of the revenue-producing properties of Winchcombe Abbey.]

Gloucestershire Wills 126

Saunders, John, Great Badminton [1611]

[BADMINTON, GREAT (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Chipping, Upper division of the hundred of Grumbald’s-Ash, W. division of the county ofGloucester, 6½ miles (E. by N.) from Chipping-Sodbury. The roads from Cheltenham and Cirencester to Bath unite here.]

Gloucestershire Wills 127

Crumpe, James, Rodley in Westbury [1611]

 Gloucestershire Wills 128 1612

Ayres, Ann, proved at Gloucester [1612]

Saunders, Eleanor, Maisemore [1612]

Gloucestershire Wills 131

Saunders, John, Tewkesbury [1613]

Gloucestershire Wills 133

^Carter, Giles, Arlingham [1614]

[Arlingham is a village near Stroud. It occupies a peninsula on a sharp bend in the River Severn.]

Crewe, John, Hawkesbury [1615]

[In my post,Giles Carter (1634-1700) Henrico County, VA, I wrote heir were two Families of Carter’s from Gloucestershire that shared similar Names, The Carter’s of Arlingham and the Carter’s of Badgeworth , Charleton Abbots, Lower Swell , Neather Swell and Cirencester and Cheltenham and Blockley. I have wills of Several of these Carter’s but I am searching for a link to Early Virginia that would connect Carter’s here to the families in Gloucestershire.]

Gloucestershire Wills 138?

Sanders, Richard, parson of Daglingworth [1616]

Crumpe, William, Westbury [1616]

Sewell, Robert, Rodborow  [1616]

Gloucestershire Wills 140

Crumpe, Henry, Gloucester [1617]

Gloucestershire Wills 141

Crumpe, William, Gloucester [1617]

Gloucestershire Wills 143 1619

Crumpe, Edward, Church Stanway [1617]

Saunders, George, Avening [1619]

Gloucestershire Wills 147

Crumpe, William, Badgeworth [1620]

Gloucestershire Wills 149

Crumpe, Henry, Westbury [1622]

Gloucestershire Wills 150? 1623 

Carter, William, Arlingham [1623]

Gloucestershire Wills 155 

Sanders, William, Cirencester [1625]

Ayre, William, Arlingham [1625]

Ayres, John, Gloucester [1625]

Carle, Ann, Wickwar [missing]  [1626] 

Gloucestershire Wills 157

t Ayers, Alice, Gloucester, pr. 1628

Ayers, Alice, Gloucester [missing]

Crumpe, Elizabeth, Gloucester [1628]

Crumpe, John, Gloucester [1628]

Crumpe, Elizabeth, Address not give [1630]

Waterman ah. Saunders, John [1630]

Carter, Joyce, Bitton [1631]

Sewell, Thomas, Nether Lippiott [1631]

Gloucestershire Wills 167

Sanders, Thomas, Maisemore [1632]

Gloucestershire Wills 168

Saunders, Mathew, Tirley [torn] [1632]

Sewell, Thomas, Bisley [1632]

Sewell, Thomas, Nether Lippiot [1633]

Volume of 1634-35

Saunders, John, Moreton Valence [1634]

Gloucestershire Wills 172

Oakes, Thomas, Wotton-under-Edge [1634]

Crewe, Mathew, Combe [missing] [1635]

Crewe, William, Alderly, gent. [1635]

Crewe, Walter, Frampton-on-Severn [1636]

Gloucestershire Wills 177

Crumpe, Thomas, Gloucester [1637]

Crew, William, Cromhall [1637]

Greyhurst als. Saunders, John [1637+]

Gloucestershire Wills 178

Saunders, John, Tirley [1638]

Saunders, Richard, Horsley [1638]

Sawnders als. Grayhurst, Redigo [1638]

Crumpe, Arthur, Werley, Westbury [1639]

[Note that 70 years later in 1710, the mariner Abraham Saunders of Westbury-on-Trym with an estate of 66 pounds was listed as 19th of the top 25 17th century Bristol area mariners, each of whose probate was betwee 50 and 975 pounds. Source: E. and S. George (1988) Guide to the Probate Inventories of the Bristol Deanery.]

Gloucestershire Wills 181

Okes, John, Wotton-under-Edge, linen draper [1639]

Carter, Walter, Arlingham [1639]

Sewell, Walter, Lippiott [1639]

Crumpe, Margaret, Lydney [1640]

Saunders, Lithew, Berkeley [1640]

Gloucestershire wills 190

Carter, William, Arlingham [1644]

Crew, Arthur, Hawkesbury [missing] [1639]

Ayres, Thomas, Newnham [1645]

Sewell, John, Bisley [1646]

Crew, Joan, Wotton-under-Edge [1647]

Crew, Richard, Wickwar, Tanner [1650]

Posted in GLOUCESTERSHIRE DOCUMENTS | Comments Off on Selected Entries from an Index of 16th and 17th Century Gloucestershire Wills

William Saunders of Ewell (1502-1571)

The following information was compiled by Justin Sanders:

1502

 William Saunders, 1502-1571, born at Ewell, Surrey County, England; son of Henry Saundres (1456-1519) Joan Lepton. Known siblings: Nicholas, 1488-1549; Agnes, 1501-1530; Margaret, 1504; Cornelia.

Quote of Lord Burgley (William Cecil) regarding William Saunders: “He managed to retain high office through troublous times by being a willow, not an oak.” (p. 119). “William Saunders is perhaps the most impressive of all figures in our family history . . . if measured by the accumulation of wealth and attainment of political position.” (p. 120).

1519

Both parents died in 1519 when William was seventeen years of age. Management of his affairs fell to his uncle, Nicholas Saunders of Charlwood, a Jesuit priest. “. . . by about age twenty, he entered the Inner Temple, obtaining a degree in law, as family members before him had done and as those following William would also do.” (p. 120).

Entered adulthood a wealthy young man, inheriting the Manor of Battailes, properties at Ebbesham and Chessington, the Three Crowns Inn of Southwark and “an array of properties in souther Surrey subsumed under Pendall Manor.” (p. 120).1

1529

Married Joan Marston about 1529, the daughter of William Marston and Nicholas Mynne. William Saunders’ wardship of five Mynne stepchildren cemented long term relationships with the Mynne family. (p. 121) “William Marston, Joan’s father, held the Manor of Shalford, a submanor of the Manor of Ewell, and to this marriage Joan brought two properties then in her possession, the Manor of Horton in Ebbesham and the Manor of Brettgrave.

William once commented on ‘my lady’s grant of Somerset in Ashstead,’ suggesting he gained some interest in this property near Ewell by about 1530.” (p. 121). Known children of William Saunders & Joan Marston: Nicholas, 1532-1587. Erasmus, 1534-1603. Mary, 1536-1613. Urithe, 1538-1600. (p. 108). – 1530’s, practicing law; gained a seat in Parliament. (p. 122) –1536, added more property by acquiring a lease for land in Gosborough Hill Wood, part of the Manor of Chessington-at-Hoke;

Parliament begins closing doors of small Catholic monasteries, declaring them uneconomic. – 1538, appointed receiver of taxes for Surrey and Sussex.

1539

1539, death of wife, Joan Marston Saunders; Parliament passed Acts of Dissolution, closing the doors of all Catholic monasteries in England; William Saunders of Ewell one of seventeen receivers appointed for Surrey and Sussex by the Court of Augmentations, a revenue branch of the Crown. William Saunders supervised local dissolutions and collected all assets on behalf of the Crown. (p. 123) –

1540

Last of Catholic monasteries falls. After dissolution process was complete, William Saunders acquired defunct monastery properties in Surrey & Kent (p. 125). “William must have entertained some misgivings about his receivership role as he seems to have rescued two gold crosses from monasteries that he eventually bestowed upon his sons as remembrances of old faith. Not the least of William’s struggles would have been to participate in the demise of Charles Carew, rector and last master of the Beddington Chapel, and William’s distant relative. The chapel and it’s appurtenances were forfeited to the Crown under William Saunders’ authority in 1539, Carew having been accused of some unproven felony for which he was evidently executed in 1540.” (p. 123). –

1541

William Saunders was appointed Commissioner of the Peace for Surrey & Sussex. –

1543,

appointed Treasurer of Calais. –

1544

married Joan Gittons, widow of Thomas Gittons, the “largest importer of wines in all of England in his day.” William presumably knew Thomas Gittons through his ownership of the Three Crown’s Inn of Southwark. Marriage to Joan Gittons produced four children: twins Francis & Frances, Catherine & Elizabeth. (p. 124). –

1545

William Saunders was appointed to the Chantry Commission. (p. 125). –

1547

William Saunders acquired a manor and iron mill in Sussex (p. 125). –

King Henry VIII died;

Edward VI, 9 year-old son of Henry & Jane Seymour, successor; uncle Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset named Lord Protector. (p. 126). –

1548 William Saunders appointed escheator of Surrey & Sussex. (p. 126). –

1553

 King Edward VI died at age 15; Mary Tudor, daughter of 1st wife, Katherine of Aragon, ascends to the throne and overthrows her father’s Protestant policies, returning England to Catholicism. –

1554

 Pope returned England to the Holy See and demanded heretics be burned at the stake, beginning Bloody Mary’s reign of terror. (p. 127). “Under Mary, William Saunders rose to the zenith of his career, being elevated into a central place in the English royal household. William was dubbed cofferer to Queen Mary, having responsibility to manage Queen Mary’s wealth.” (p. 127). –

1554

 returned to Parliament. –

The planned marriage of Queen Mary to Philip of Spain touched off a series of rebellions in England, “the most noted of which was Wyatt’s Kentish Rebellion of 1554. . . . Teaming up with his cousin, Sir Thomas Saunders of Charlwood, William Saunders descended up Bletchingly in 1554 with superior force and in seventeen wagons carried off arms and other property amassed by Sir Thomas Cowarden [a Protestant Justice of the Peace], whose loyalty to the Queen was in doubt.” (p. 128). –

1555

 Knighted by Queen Mary. –

1556

 appointed High Sheriff of Surrey.

1558

Death of Queen Mary; succeeded by half-sister Elizabeth, daughter of Henry VIII & Anne Boleyn. –

1559

William Saunders and sons Nicholas & Francis received a royal pardon for “land alienation,” for acquiring land originally held by monasteries, sold without royal license. (p. 130). –

1563

 William Saunders appointed Queen’s Surveyor “despite his close and eager support of the Catholic queen just five years before. . . . William’s substantial knowledge of escheated Surrey lands evidently outweighed his Catholic beliefs. . . . Elizabeth’s need for skill in property law and taxation as revenues fell precipitously following her coronation.” It was William’s final government post. (p. 130). –

1571

 Death of William Saunders of Ewell. Notes: Prior to William’s death, the Catholic Counter-Revolution accelerated arrests of recusants; sons Erasmus & Nicholas were arrested shortly after his death. (p. 130). In addition to substantial wealth, William’s children also inherited “a high social and political orbit . . . (and) a set of allegiances from marriage and political exchange that William had built over his lifetime. . . .”

Posted in SAUNDERS | Comments Off on William Saunders of Ewell (1502-1571)

Selected Excerpts from Latimer’s History of the Merchant Venturers Guild of Bristol, U. K., Part 1

Over eleven decades ago, an important history of the Merchant Venturers Guild of Bristol, U. K., was published in England.

I will be excerpting relevant passages that I believe will prove useful in developing insights into the ancestsral family history of related families who settled in 17th century Virginia.

I offer these excerpts as providing support to my argument that mercantile institutions existed in Bristol and elsewhere that would help explain the distribution near port cities in England of several (perhaps many) related surnames that are also found in 17th century Virginia.

 

From the preface to John Latimer Society of Merchant Venturers of the City of Bristol; with some Account of the Anterior Merchants’ Guilds, 1903, J. W. Arrowsmith, Quay Street, Bristol, U.K.:

“It is somewhat remarkable that although the merchants of the leading outports in England obtained royal charters of incorporation in the sixteenth century, no Merchant Venturers’ Society was established in London.

“A corporate body, eventually styled the Merchant Adventurers of England, had indeed been founded by Henry the Fourth, and granted exclusive rights of trading with Germany and the Low Countries; but . . . the members ‘were in those times dispersed, and dwelt as well in the outports of the kingdom – viz.: at York, Hull, Exeter, and Newcastle, as at London, though the greatest number always dwelt at London’. . .

“Down to the rupture with Spain in the reign of Elizabeth, the General Courts of this singular Society, whose members were exclusively Englishmen, but whose Governor, Wardens, and Assistants were elected and resided abroad, generally assembled at Antwerp, and at that time the members living in London do not appear to have had a recognized right to elect a resident deputy Governor.

“At a later period, the headquarters of the fraternity were at Hamburg, whene it became commonly known in this country as the Hamburg Company; and it being then customary to hold three General Courts yearly – two at the new centre and one in London – the organization got later on to be loosely styled the ‘London Company.”

The crest of the Merchant Venturers of the City of Bristol

“By the charter granted to the Bristol Merchants by Edward the Sixth, they were forbidden to traffic in the region reserved to the Merchant Adventurers of England; but this restraint was abrogated by the second local charter granted by Charles the First. The latter instrument, resulting from the temporary capture of this city by the Royalist army, was probably regarded as invalid by the party that afterwards gained supremacy.

:But in 1662 Charles the Second, in response to a petition setting forth the decay of the clothing trade in the West of England occasioned by the narrow policy of the English Adventurers, ordered that admission to that company should be granted to all merchants at the outports on payment of a small fine. . .

“[I]t appears that in 1669 the Bristolians, pleading their charters, appealed to the Privy Council against the monopoly claimed by the Hamburg Company; . . . The Merchant Adventurers of England still flourish for a time at Hamburg , . . . [but by the early years of George the Third] English trade with the Hanse Towns had been entirely unrestricted for three-quarters of a century.”

“Dr Gross [author of The Gild Merchant] has been unable to find any trace of the existence of an English Guild Merchant in the Anglo-Saxon period of our history. . .  although Merchant Guilds had been undoubtedly established in some parts of Normandy and Northern France.

“The history of our own guilds, therefore, begins after the advent of the Conqueror, when . . . the close unity between England and Normandy led to an increase in foreign commerce, and greatly stimulated internal trade and industry. With the expansion of trade, the mercantile element naturally became a more important factor in town life, and would soon feel the need of joint action to guard the nascent prosperity against encroachment.

“The earliest extant references to the Guild Merchant . . occur in the charter granted by Robert FitzHamon [Lord of the Honour of Gloucester] to the burgesses of the little town of Burford (1087-1107) and in a document drawn p whilst Anselm was Archbishop of Canterbury (1093-1109). Soon afterwards, during the reign of Henry the First (1100-1135), the Guild appears in various municipal charters, and its propagation must have been greatly stimulated by the further extension of England’s Continental possessions under Henry the Second.

“[I]n November, 1200, King John [Henry II’s son] made a fresh grant of liberties to the burgesses of Dublin, permitting them . . to have all guilds, as well as, or better than, those enjoyed by the burgesses of Bristol (Charter Rolls).

“The privileges of Bristol were in fact so extensive, and so much coveted by other buroughs , that it became the custom for less favoured communities to appeal to the Crown for the like concessions . . , None of these, however, obtained the full privileges enjoyed by Bristolians. In the reign of Richard the First the import of foreign wines was exclusively confined to London and Bristol . . and the western port seems to have had the largest share of the trade, for the Patent and Close Rolls of King John and his son, Henry the Third, contain a multitude of mandates of wine for the Royal household and Court favourites. Latimer, pp. 1-4

“When trade and industry underwent a great expansion during the period of the three Edwards, the mercantile interests must have become completely dominant in many towns, the burgher merging in the townsman, and gildship becoming an appurtenance of burgess-ship. . .The same men swayed the counsels of the borough and gild. Latimer, p. 5 (quoting Gross.)

“The case of the town of Gloucester is still more striking, for there the Guild actually became the Corporation. The irst common seal of that borough, an impression of which is appended to a document executed between 1237 and 1245, bears the inscription in latin: – “Seal of the Burgesses of the Merchants’ Gild of Gloucester”.

 

 

 

Posted in COLONIAL TRADE | Comments Off on Selected Excerpts from Latimer’s History of the Merchant Venturers Guild of Bristol, U. K., Part 1

Saunders Family Lines in 17th Century Virginia and their Ancestry: Additional Research by Justin Sanders

Further correspondence with Justin Sanders:

Hi Justin – Great work (your research on the descendants of the Saunders family of Charlwood, Surrey, England).

I’d like to spend some time on what can be learned of connecting families in Bristol and such Gloucester towns as Tewkesbury and Cirencester. Our y-DNA line is only one of each of our ancestral lines.

As I’ve said before, almost no one in England owned (or even sailed in) ships, and these voyages were occurring in times when “mercantilism” (implying concerted action often sponsored by the sovereign power), rather than “competition” was the dominant economic endeavor.

It should not surprise us to find multiple dynastic ties and intermarriages between families involved in maritime trade, tobacco growing and land speculation in Virginia.

What seems to be different about the 16th and 17th centuries is that families – currently or previously tied economically and dynastically – were associated with competing religions. I suspect that there are clues to be found in how our ancestors acquired wealth and what churches they attended. Cordially, Bill

Bill, Below are some additional notes to the most recent file. I’ll reply to the comments of your last email as time permits. Just aren’t enough hours in the day at present. Justin.

Justin Sanders’ Supplementary Notes to Surrey (England) and Virginia: the Mercantile Activities of the Descendents of the Saunders Family of Charlwood

There is evidence of a possible Edwards-Sanders alliance that had its roots in Wales and Bristol, England, and with the addition of William Crump, extended into the early years of Virginia settlement.

In my study of early land patents, I could not help but notice the aggravating regularity with which 17th century clerks interchanged the given name Edward with Edmond.  It stands to reason this same methodology was applied to persons possessing the surname Edwards, as well. Keeping that historical quirk in mind, it sheds new light on records I forwarded to you earlier.

On 9 November 1665, Charles EdmondsWilliam Crump and Robert Whitehaire received a patent of 2700 acres, described as being in New Kent County, on the south side “in freshes of Yorke River above Mohixen.” One of the persons they owned the headrights to wasThomas Saunders (1630-1679), son of Thomas Saunders Sr. (1607-1653) and grandson of Philip Saunders of Bristol.

The description of the property’s location is somewhat deceiving. The Pamunkey River was sometimes referred to as the south branch of York River; the stream identified here as the Mohixen, soon after became known as Crump’s Creek, now in present day Hanover County.

This property fell to Robert Whitehair in a division by the three partners in 1688. Whitehair evidently died without heirs soon after, as the property was escheated by the colony and 900 acres of the patent was acquired in 1690 by John Chiles. He was the grandson of Walter Chiles, who, from 1640 to 1660 in Charles City County was an adjoining neighbor and possible brother-in-law of William Sanders (formerly of Gloucester County, England).

By 1696 the former Edmonds, Crump and Whitehair patent changed hands from John Chiles to his son, Henry Chiles.[1] In 1748, my direct ancestor Thomas Sanders (1699-1772) of Goochland County obtained a deed to 465 acres on Fishpond Creek of Albemarle County (later Buckingham and ultimately Appomattox County) from William Chambers, adjoining Henry Chiles.

Further research shows that the land Thomas Sanders called home for the remainder of his life was formerly owned by Henry Chiles, from whom Chambers acquired it about two years before deeding it to Sanders.

In 1673, Charles Edmonds owned the headrights of William Sanders, transported to New Kent on the north side of the York River, the same general area where Thomas Sanders (Senior and Junior) resided on the northeast side of Mattapony River.

In 1674 Robert Bagby and William Herndon received a patent on the northeast side of Mattapony River, owning the headrights of William SandersMichael Edmonds and Cuthbert Tunstall.

The William Sanders mentioned here may be the son of William and Joan Sanders of Charles City County, noted as a minor in the 1660 will of William Sanders, Sr. Cuthbert Tunstall is undoubtedly a son or grandson of Edward Tunstall (whose given name, of course, is listed in some records as Edmond), who also owned land in Charles City County adjoining William Sanders and Walter Chiles, circa 1640-1660. And Michael Edmonds is likely related to Charles Edmonds.[2]

By adding a distant Sanders DNA match to a descendant of William Crump, this tight circle of interconnected coincidences suggests that the Charles Edmonds noted as a business partner of William Crump and Robert Whitehair, was actually Charles Edwards, a relative of Thomas Sanders’ (1607-1653) step-mother, Alice Edwards Barrett Saunders.

It is likely that my direct ancestor, Francis Barrett (1600-1658) descended from the Barretts of Pembrokeshire. Being double-descended from James Sanders of New Kent (circa 1675-1717), Francis Barrett was the great (x3) grandfather on the maternal side of Frances (Fanny) Saunders, my great (x3) grandmother.

At the time the 1624 census was taken, there were at least seven Barretts living in the Virginia Colony, one identified as a shipwright and another as a mariner. At various times Francis and several of the other Barretts, were brought to Virginia on the Bona Nova, a ship that made annual voyages to the colony between the years 1618 and 1624, with the apparent exception of 1623.

London was the home port of the Bona Nova, and because only Walter Barrett was listed on a London-generated manifest in 1619, is an indicator that Francis boarded the ship at Bristol or Tenby, probably in 1620.

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Surrey (England) and Virginia: the Mercantile Activities of the Descendents of the Saunders Family of Charlwood

Below continues Justin Sanders’ exploration of the Saunders family of Charlwood, Surrey, England and their descendants. See Conversations with Justin Sanders regarding English Connections of Sanders/Saunders Families of Virginia and subsequent entries under the “Saunders” category.

 

Most of the following information comes from Ralph Sanders work, Generations: A Thousand Year Family History. It will take some time to create correctly annotated files; in the interest of expediting this information, I’ll not include notes on the original sources referenced by the author, only the corresponding page numbers in Generations within the text. And for the sake of clarity and brevity, the author will hereafter be referred to as “RS.”

I first read this book in the summer of 2012, about eight months after my research into two DNA matches led to a breakthrough in my Sanders line. At the time I found Ralph Sanders’ work a marvel of research, and felt there was a 50-50 chance that I descended from Thomas Sanders (1607-1653) of Gloucester.

The information I’ve gathered since that time has made this second reading richly rewarding, especially in regard to providing clues to the origins of family alliances. In 2012, I was unaware of offshoot connections to the family names of Prior, Edwards, Chiles and Burton, to name just a few, and had no knowledge that I was directly descended from ancestors named Adams and Barrett.

And should it prove correct that I directly descend from Thomas Sanders (a second reading has caused me to upgrade that theory from possible to probable), it would come with the knowledge that I had at least one direct ancestor, possibly two (Francis Barrett and Unknown Adams) and several relatives who were already established in the colony more than two decades before Thomas Saunders first arrived in Virginia.

As Bill and I suspected we would find, most (if not all) of the Saunders persons in Virginia records dating from the early 17th century, whether they embarked from London or Bristol, were indeed related, their lineage traceable to the Charlwood group in Surrey; and that those biological ties, no matter how distant, were closely bound by family alliances and economic opportunity.

To the financial benefit of all, those with a background of mercantilists worked together with their numerous relatives with maritime interests.

Saunders family interests in overseas commerce began in the late decades of the 16th century, brought about by a climate social and political change in England. RS states: “All Saunders branches . . . exploited emerging opportunities in the nascent English capital regime of the early 1600’s,” but the Derbyshire branch “in particular engaged in international trade,” and Joseph Saunders, a merchant of London “contributed most significantly to Virginia’s early development.” [p. 192].

I sent Bill notes earlier, and which he posted on Vikings and Virginians, in regard to the above Joseph Saunders. About 1623, Joseph Saunders established a warehouse near the southern tip of the Accomack peninsula – hailed as “the very first private commercial establishment in America.”

Simultaneously, he opened warehouses in London and Rotterdam, “a triangle of strategic commercial value.” Plying between the three warehouses were two ships he himself owned, the Flower de Luce and the Bonny Bess. RS found no evidence that Joseph ever traveled to Virginia. Operations there were run by Edward Saunders, who in turn enlisted the aid of a relative named Roger Saunders. [pp. 193, 195].

RS writes: “The warehouse itself was part of a larger family scheme designed to profit from Virginia trade. Principal support for the Sanders warehouse was supplied by Joseph Saunders, a well-to-do merchant, shipowner, and member of the Vintners Company of London. Joseph was of the Saunders of Derbyshire, an offshoot of the Saunders of Charlwood. Joseph married Anne, a daughter of William Smith of Mitchum, Surrey. At one point, William Smith, probably Joseph’s brother-in-law, joined Roger and Edward Saunders in Virginia, and he obtained land in Accomack near Roger Saunders in 1629.” [p. 192].

Joseph Saunders was born about 1598, the youngest son of Thomas of Lullington, born in 1548. The Derbyshire branch originated with Joseph’s grandfather, Thomas Saunders Sr., born about 1500, the son of William Saunders, born about 1475 in Charlwood; William was the son of Richard Saunders (1442-1480) and Agnes Courtenay, “daughter of a distinguished old Norman family whose pedigree is a lexicon of English royal history.” [pp. 76, 87, 193, 195-6]. Richard was the son of William Saunders of Charlwood (1415-1481) and Joan Carew.

This William Saunders was the common ancestor shared by the Derbyshire branch of Saunders and those who went to Wales in the late 16th century, then Gloucestershire and Bristol in the early 17th century and Virginia by mid-century.

Edward Saunders was born about 1595 in Charlwood, Surrey, the probable grandson of Thomas White Saunders. He first traveled to Virginia in 1619, residing there intermittently over the next two decades.

RS believes Edward was closely related to Richard Saunders, also a member of the Vintners Company, who died in 1636 on “ye Neck of Land in the Maine” [James River]. Richard Saunders appears to be the American progenitor of the Sanders line later found in Nansemond County.

RS was unable to determine the origins of Roger Saunders, who is alternately listed in early Virginia records as a merchant and mariner, but believes he, too, was closely related to Edward. It stands to reason that the warehouse enterprise was initiated by Saunders kin who all sailed from the Port of London – and for that reason it is my own belief that Roger, too, hailed from the Charlwood group. [p. 191].

“Trade in earliest Virginia floundered in part because the colony lacked ports. . . . Ships arriving from England landed at individual plantations along Virginia’s rivers, carrying goods consigned to individuals. What was missing was a center for collecting and distributing goods, a marketplace for exchange. Joseph Saunders particular genius was to recognize this need and act upon it. . . . Joseph built a warehouse at the southern tip of the Accomack peninsula, a strategic site where the Chesapeake Bay enters the Atlantic Ocean.”

By 1630, the warehouse operation was, for the most part, a smoothly run and profitable enterprise. But before the decade was out, Joseph Saunders would lose all three of his Virginia partners: Roger Saunders died about 1632; William Smith, Joseph Saunders’ brother-in-law, died in 1636; Edward Saunders and three coworkers died aboard the Flower de Luce on a return trip to England in 1639.

Thus, through the first seventeen years of his Virginia operations, it appears Joseph Saunders contracted primarily, if not exclusively, with London-based family members of Charlwood. About 1640, Bristol and Gloucester relatives entered the picture in the form of Thomas Sanders.

“In London, Joseph Saunders of the Vintners Company had begun casting about for new contacts in Virginia, seeking to continue trade that was well begun with his Accomack warehouse. But with Edward Saunders’ death in 1639, Joseph needed new colonial representation for his trading business, and for this purpose he contracted with a certain Peter Knight of Virginia.

Peter Knight arrived in Virginia about 1638, residing in Accomack, and shortly thereafter amassed a sizeable plantation on the James River. In 1643, Knight underwrote the costs for transportation for William Nicholas, Thomas Sanders’ good friend, to come to Virginia and undertake trade there. Knight’s engagement of William Nicholas on behalf of Joseph Saunders suggests that Joseph actively sought partners from the Bristol maritime community.

It seems likely that Thomas Saunders traveled to Virginia a year before William Nicholas under a similar arrangement. If so, he spent a year or two in Virginia before returning to England.” [p. 204].

Ralph Sanders believes Thomas traveled to Virginia about 1641, or earlier.  In 1642, William Barnard received a patent near the Charles (York) River, that included the headrights of a Thomas Sanderby, a name that never again appears in Virginia records.

In all likelihood, this person was actually Thomas Sanders of Bristol. “William Barnard acquired land adjacent William Tookey, a family with whom Thomas’ son (Thomas Jr.) had close dealings in later years. Even more significantly, the Barnard family in 1647 rented land on the Charles River from an early settler there, William Prior.

Thomas Sanders later would witness the execution of William Prior’s estate and himself take up lands near Prior’s original plantation. Prior’s daughter married a Thomas Edwards, perhaps a relative of Thomas Sanders’ stepmother, and this Edwards held the Prior plantation that the Barnard’s eventually rented. Taken altogether, these facts argue that Barnard’s headright claim for Thomas Sanderby was in fact Thomas Sanders.” [endnote no. 58, p. 213].

My own research strengthens the author’s circumstantial evidence, shown above, at least in regard to the surname Prior. Over the next century the name Prior appears in close proximity with my theoretical line of the 17th century, and my proven line in the early 18th century, spanning the counties of New Kent, Henrico, Goochland and Albemarle, until about 1750.

Although a firm trail of Virginia records for Thomas Sanders does not begin until about 1646, it appears Ralph Sanders is correct in surmising the Bristol native entered into Joseph Saunders’ operations as early as 1640, or 1641.

Those records show Thomas made at least three trips to Virginia, where he presumably died sometime before 1653. The scant records pertaining to Thomas Sanders have been posted on V&V, and will not be repeated here. Instead, I’ll focus on retracing his lineage to the common Charlwood ancestor he shared with Joseph Saunders.

Thomas Sanders was born 1607 in Tenby, Pembrokeshire, Wales. He was the second of three known children attributed to Philip Saunders: older brother John was born about 1604; sister Thomasin was born sometime after 1607 (p. 103).

Through his mother’s family and that of his paternal grandmother, Jenet Barrett Saunders, Thomas was endowed with strong ties to the maritime community of southwest England and Wales. About 1603, Philip Saunders married Jane Adams, she of a “Pembrokeshire, Wales family with a strong naval history.”

Her father, Henry Adams, owned a 12-ton ship named Anne, and her uncle Nicholas Adams was for a time the Vice-Admiral of Pembrokeshire. In 1607, a relative named Robert Adams, whose relationship to Jane has not been determined, commanded the fourth English voyage to the settlement of Jamestown, Virginia. (p. 167).

It is worth noting that Robert Adams bore the same name of my direct ancestor – whose parents I have not yet been able to identify – born about seventy years later in Virginia.

Jane Adams Saunders died about 1611. Thomas’ father Philip remarried to Alice Edwards Barrett, the daughter John Edwards – a coastal merchant of Tenby, Wales – and widow of Sanders Barrett, a first cousin twice removed from Philip. (p. 168).

In 1621, at the age of fourteen, Thomas Sanders entered into an apprenticeship with John Mynne, a cousin dating back to the family’s days at Ewell in Surrey County. The document outlining the terms of the apprenticeship identifies Thomas’ father, Philip Saunders, as a mariner. (p. 169). About four years later, Philip Saunders died.

Left without sponsorship, Thomas Saunders’ apprenticeship was terminated, two to three years short of completion. Very soon after, Thomas’ widowed stepmother, Alice Edwards Barrett Saunders, took her third husband, Hugh Wogan, the couple removing from Gloucester to the town of Wiston, Wales.

She remained faithful to her stepson, arranging for him to complete his apprenticeship under a new master, William Roche – suggesting that John Mynne may also have died in the interim. For this act of fidelity, Thomas’ grandmother, Jenet Barrett Saunders, bequeathed to Thomas’ stepmother in her 1628 will. (pp. 169-170).

In early adulthood it appears Thomas divided his time between Bristol and the Gloucester town of Wotton-under-Edge, where his siblings John and Thomasin had also taken up residence.

Children of Thomas Saunders (1607-1652) & Elizabeth Webb:

Thomas Jr., 1630-1679.

Mary, m. J. Hutchinson.

Sarah, m. J. Clarkson.

Nathaniel, 1634-1695, m. M. Stratton.

Samuel, 1636-1686.

All of the above were born at Bristol or Wotton-under-Edge, Gloucester Co., England.

 

Philip Saunders, the father of Thomas, was born in Tenby, Pembrokeshire County, Wales about 1579, and died in Gloucester, England about 1625. He was the son of Erasmus Saunders and Jenet Barrett.

It is with Philip’s generation that this branch of the former Charlwood group entered into the livelihood of merchants and mariners. Philip’s mother, Jenet Barrett, was the sole heir of William Barrett, a wealthy merchant and shipowner. She was somehow related to the unknown Barrett male who was the spouse of an unidentified female cousin of her husband, Erasmus, parents of a son named Sanders Barrett, born a year or two prior to her marriage.

She had an uncle, James Barrett, also involved in maritime interests. James Barrett may be the father of John Barrett, a close relative of Sanders Barrett, the first husband of Alice Edwards, the second wife of Philip Saunders. (pp. 167-169).

 Known Children of Philip Saunders (1578-1625) & Jane Adams: (p. 152).

John, 1604- ? m. J. Haines.

Thomas1607-1652, m. E. Webb.

Thomasin, 1607- m. T. Owen.

All of the above were born in Tenby, Pembrokeshire, Wales.

Children of Erasmus Saunders (1540-1603) & Jenet Barrett: (p. 152).

Nicholas, 1571-1636.

William, 1573-1635.

Erasmus, 1574-1612.

John, 1576-1612.

Philip1578-1625.

Devereaux, 1580-?

Elizabeth, 1582

Henry, 1583-1636.

Ann, 1585-1613.

Jane, 1558-1613.

All of the above born in Tenby, Pembrokeshire, Wales.

Note: An inordinate number of early Sanders/Saunders in Virginia pertain to men with the given names William and John. They likely descend from the family group of Erasmus Saunders and his brother, William.

Known Children of William Saunders of Ewell, Surrey Co. (1502-1571) & Joan Marston: (p. 108).

Nicholas, 1532-1587

Erasmus1534-1603

Mary, 1536-1613

Urithe, 1538-1600.

Known Children of Henry Saundre of Ewell, Surrey Co. (1456-1519)  & Joan Lepton: (p. 108).

Nicholas, 1488-1549

Agnes, 1501-1530

William, 1502-1571

Margaret, 1504-?

Cornelia, ?

Children of William Saundres of Charlwood, Surrey Co. (1415-1481) & Joan Carew: (p. 76).

William, 1438-1478

John, d.1501

Stephen, 1441-1513

Richard, 1442-1480

Nicholas, 1446-1499

Thomas, d. after 1473

Joan, d. after 1518

Henry, 1456-1519.

Note: William Saundres of Charlwood is the common ancestor shared by Joseph Saunders of Derbyshire (1598) and Thomas Saunders of Gloucester (1607-1652).

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Selected 17th Century Land Transcations South of York and Mattapony and North of Chicahominy Rivers of Virginia

WHB: Justin Sanders selected these land transactions as relevant to a Saunders family history. This post supplements Selected 17th Century Land Transactions between York and Rappahonnock (North of Mattapony) Rivers of Virginia.

1639

18 April 1639 – Richard Sanders, servant of William Bassett & wife

Isabella, trans by same, 150 acres on both sides of Chickahominy River, into woods known by Indians as Pottacocock. Source: Cavaliers & Pioneers, Vol. 1, p. 107. (PB1:641)

1662

12 Oct 1662 – Wm. Sanders transported to New Kent County by Capt. George Lyddall, 3306 acres on both sides of Black Creek,[1] to Wanieoke Creek (or Warrieoke Cr.) 1750 acres of which granted to Joseph Croshaw 8 Nov 1653. Source: Cavaliers & Pioneers, Vol. 1, p. 403. (PB4:324).

[1] Black Creek is a south branch of the Pamunkey River.

 1663

25 Sep 1663 – Jno Sanders, trans to Pequimmin River, about 6 or 7 miles up same, point of land near great marsh, running NE to the mouth of a small creeke called Curratick. Source: Cavaliers & Pioneers, Vol. 1, p. 427. (PB4:96).

1665

9 Nov 1665 – Thomas Saunders was transported to New Kent Co., on S. side & in freshes of Yorke River above Mohixen by Wm. Crump, Charles Edmonds & Robert Whitehaire[2], 2700 acres Source: Cavaliers & Pioneers, Vol. 1, p. 538. (PB5:444).[2] Robert Whitehaire & Charles Edmonds also transported Alexander Brice; see 25 April 1667.

 

1666

19 March 1666 – Wm. Sanders transported to New Kent, South Side of Yorke River adj. Manskin (Cr.?), mouth of Tottopottomoyes Creek by  Moyses Davies, 1450 acres adj. Capt. Anthony Langstone & Robert Anderson. Source: Cavaliers & Pioneers, Vol. 2, p. 6. (PB6:19).

9 June 1666 – Wm. Sanders transported to New Kent, adj. Warrani Swamp and Capt. Barnehouse, by John Glen. Source: Cavaliers & Pioneers Vol. 2, p. 6. (PB6:18).

1669

23 Oct 1669 – Wm. Sanders transported to New Kent, S. Side of the Yorke River adj. Tankes Queens Cr.,[3] Geo. Hill, Ridge Path, by Wm. Blackey. Source: Cavaliers & Pioneers Vol. 2, p. 70. (PB6:278).

[3] There is a Queens Creek in present day Williamsburg; not certain if they are one and the same.

1682

20 April 1682 –  John Lane, 76 acres in New Kent, Co., upon SE side of Mattaponi River, and SSW side of Assatians Swamp. . . . to his seat of land purchased of Thomas Sanders. . . .” Cavaliers & Pioneers, Vol. 2, p. 240. (PB7:173)[4]

[4] Thomas Sanders appears to have had land on Pamunkey Neck. This may be the 43 acre patent obtained by his son, Thomas Sanders for paying for his own transportation to the colony about 1760. Patent is referenced in “Generations” but has not been located in C&P.

20 April 1682 – John Sanders transported to New Kent, St. Stephen’s Parish, adj. Exoll’s Swamp,

Gabriel Hill, John Richards, by Hugh Lawrence. Source: Cavaliers & Pioneers, Vol. 2, p. 229. (PB7:127).

1689 – Vestry Book St Peter’s Parish, New Kent, Processional list of landowners living in parish. James Sanders is listed twice; also Jno. Sands.

1690

21 April 1690 – James Sanders transported to Henrico County, Varina Parish, N. Side of James River nigh Chickahominy Swamp, adj. Lionell Morris & Gilley Grummeron, crossing a bridge of Gilley’s Cr., by Wm. Porter and Daniell Price. Source: Cavaliers & Pioneers, Vol. 2, p. 340. (PB8:131).

23 Oct 1690 – Eliza. Sanders transported to New Kent on S. Side of Tottamottapoy Creek [5]adj. Cornelius Debony and Jno Davies, by Charles Fleming. Source: Cavaliers & Pioneers, Vol. 2, p. 354. (PB8:106).

[5] A south branch of Pamunkey River. Same location Wm. Sanders was transported to in 1666.

23 Oct 1690 – Mr. John Chiles,[6] 345 acres in New Kent Co., Beg. at Mr. Whitehair’s on Crump’s Creek, to a branch of Mathumps Creek, adj. Capt. Bassett. Source: Cavaliers & Pioneers, Vol. 2, pp. 352-353. (PB8:97).

[6] Son of Walter Chiles II?

[WHB – Crump Creek is a physical feature (stream) in Hanover County. Crump Creek is located within the Henry district at latitute 37.7246 and longitude -77.2972. The primary coordinates for Crump Creek places it within the ZIP Code 23069 delivery area.]

28 April 1691 – Mr. John Chiles, 900 acres in New Kent Co., S. Side & in freshes of Yorke River above Mehixon (Creek), part of 2700 acres granted Mr. William Crump, Mr. Charles Edmonds & Mr. Robert Whitehair, & in division dated 3 Nov 1688 fell to sd. Whitehair, escheated by inquisition under Mr. William Leigh, Dpty. Esch’r. Source: Cavaliers & Pioneers, Vol. 2, p. 364. (PB8:163). [7]

[7] Whitehair, Crump & Edmonds received their grant 9 Nov 1665; Thomas Saunders was one of the transported persons listed in connection with this grant. Is John Chiles related to Sanders persons in New Kent?

1694

20 April 1694 – Edwd. Schrimshire & Jno Schrimshire[8] transported to to Nansemond Co., by Henry Hackley. Source: Cavaliers & Pioneers, Vol. 2, p. 389. (PB8:338).

[8] Edward Scrimshire was transported to New Kent, N. Side of Mattapony by Joshua Story in 1691; because James Sanders & Sarah Scrimshire named 2nd son John, Jonathan Scrimshire may be her oldest brother, named after their father.

1696

29 Oct1696 – Wm Winston, 2057 acres in New Kent Co., St. Peter’s Parish, S. Side of Crump’s Creek along land, now or late, of Henry Chiles. Source: Cavaliers & Pioneers, Vol. 3, p. 10. (PB9:59). [9]

[9] Henry Chiles is in possession of part or all of land of John Chiles, suggesting they are father & son.

1702

1702 Militia New Kent Co VA (age 16+?)

John Sanders – brother of James & William?

James Sanders – married Sarah Scrimshire

Thomas Sanders – brother of James & John?

William does not appear on list.

1704

1704 Quit Rent Rolls St Peter’s & St Paul’s Parish New Kent.[12]

[12] St. Paul’s Parish was formed in 1704 in the western part of New Kent; Hanover Co. was formed 1719, conforming to the parish boundaries. Thomas Sanders may have resided there; he is not mention in St. Peter’s Vestry Book.

John Sanders – brother of James & William.

James Sanders – brother of John & William, spouse Sarah Scrimshire.

William Sanders – brother of James & John, spouse Elizabeth Major.

Thomas Sanders – brother of above?

http://www.vagenweb.org/newkent/1704va.txt

1705

20 Nov 1705 – Henry Nelson of St. Stephen’s Parish, King & Queen Co., sells to William Saunders of King Wm. Co., for 2,000 lb tobo, 170 acres in Pamunkey Neck in King Wm. Co., part of a patent of 2,340 acres by sd. Nelson 23 Oct 1703. Land adjoins Darrell’s swamp, land belonging to Thacker, land of sd. Saunders, land of John Whitehead.[10] Witnesses: J. Wood, Richd Price, John Allcock. Elizabeth, wife of sd. Henry Nelson relinq. Dower rights. Recorded King Wm. Co., 20 Jan 1705/6. Source: Records of King William Co., Book 1, 1702-1707, Virginia State Library, Archives Division, in Virginia Colonial Abstracts,Vol. VII, p. 283, Beverly Fleet.[11]

[10] A John Whitehead was listed together with a Wm. Sanders in 1673, transported to the south side of the Rappahannock River by Cadwallader Jones: C&P2:139.

[11] King William Co., formed 1702 from King & Queen; New Kent before 1691.

1714

16 Dec 1714 – Thomas Sanders, Anne Adams, Frances Price, et al. trans to St. Paul’s Parish of New Kent (Hanover 1719), adj. Taylor’s Creek, Pamunkey River, by George Alves. Source: Cavaliers & Pioneers, Vol. 3, p. 162-3. (PB10:212).

1723

5 Sept 1723 – William Brown, 268 acres (N.L.) Henrico Co., N side of James River, S. side of the main Creek of Tuccahoe, parting said Cox & Robert Adams, to Gilly Grew Marrain’s line. Source: Cavaliers & Pioneers, Vol. 3, p. 25. (PB11:244).

~~~~~/~~~~~

Between Crump’s Creek & Tottomottapoy Creek: (3-4 miles distance).

William Sanders, 1666.

Elizabeth Sanders, 1690.

John Chiles, 1690-1691.

Henry Chiles, 1696.

James New, 1680.

Varina Parish, Henrico, between Gilley’s Creek & Westham Creek (2-3 miles distance).

Jno. Sanders, Geo. Price & Edw. Crump, 1664.

Joan Sanders, Jane Jackson, James Jackson, 1689.[13]

[13] Joan Sanders & Jane Jackson may be daughters of William Sanders (d. 1660 at Merchant’s Hope) & wife Joan; James Jackson may be son of Patrick Jackson who witnessed Saners’ 1660 will.

James Sanders, Daniel Price, Jane Price, 1690.

Robert Adams, bef. 1723.

Four Mile Creek: William Sanders, Edward Sanders, 1688 (15 miles from Gilley’s Creek).


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Selected 17th Century Land Transactions between York and Rappahonnock (North of Mattapony) Rivers of Virginia

WHB: Justin Sanders selected these land transactions as relevant to a Saunders family history:

1646

20 Jun 1646 – Joseph Croshawe, Charles River Co.,[1] 700 acres “Beg. at the Mill Sw., near lands of Richard Major & John Davis,” for the importation of 14 persons . . . Thomas Sanders.  Source: Cavaliers and Pioneers,  Vol. 1, pp. 166-167. (PB2:88)[2]

[1] Charles River Co. renamed New Kent Co. in 1644. Date of actual voyage may have preceded name change. Thomas Sanders, d. 1653, merchant of Vintners Company of London.

[2] Virginia Patent Book reference number.

1653

27 April 1653 – Capt. Robert Abrahall, Gloucester County[3], 400 acres SE side of Mattaponi River, 9 miles up the same, for transporting 9 persons . . . “Cor. Sanders.” (Cornelius?) Source: Cavaliers & Pioneers, Vol. 1, p. 242. (PB3:20)

[3] Gloucester Co. formed 1651. Sanders’ property is referenced in Gloucester and New Kent (1654); property appears to have been on dividing line.

 1654

27 May 1654 – Tobey West, grantee; Land grant, Gloucester County. Description: 500 acres on the north east side of Mattaponi River and ___ north side of Thomas Sanders’ land. Source: Land Office Patents No. 3, 1652-1655, p. 10, Reel 2 (Library of Virginia). Cavaliers & Pioneers, Vol. 1, p. 232. (PB3:10).

1655

6 June 1655 – John Hodson, grantee; Land grant,  New Kent County[4]. Description: 300 acres on the north east of Mattaponi River. Beg. &c. on the southernmost corner of Thomas Saunders’ land with a So. So. Et. line unto Arakeyaco creek.[5] Source: Land Office Patents No. 3, 1652-1655, p. 355, Reel 2 (Library of Virginia). Cavaliers & Pioneers, Vol. 1, p. 310; (PB3:355).

[4] New Kent Co., formed 1654.

[5] Present day Burnt Mill Creek.

1658

9 June 1658 – Nathaniel Bacon,[6] grantee; Land grant, New Kent County. Description: 300 acres on the North East side of Mattaponi River Beg. &c. on the Southernmost corner of Thomas Sanders’ land, with a S. S. East line unto Arrakioco swamp. Source: Land Office Patents No. 4, 1655-1664, p. 335, Reel  4 (Library of Virginia). [Same land as Hodson’s 1655 patent?] Cavaliers & Pioneers, Vol. 1, 381.(PB4:237)

[6] Uncle of rebel of the same name. Nathaniel Bacon, the rebel leader, lived somewhere in the vicinity and recruited most of his initial army in New Kent. John Sanders was known as a “notorious actor” in Bacon’s Rebellion.

5 Sep 1658 – James Sanders transported to, New Kent County by John Pigge, 700 acres on N side of Mattaponi River on branches of Winkepin Swamp, Ralph Leftwich’s line. Source: Cavaliers & Pioneers, Vol. 1, p. 370 (PB4:187).

1659

8 June 1659 – Major Joseph Croshaw, grantee; Land grant, New Kent County. Description: 500 acres on the north east side of Mattapony River, and on the north side of Thomas Sanders’s land. Source: Land Office Patents No. 4, 1655-1664, p. 226, Reel  4 (Library of Virginia).; Cavaliers & Pioneers, Vol. 1, p. 361. (PB4:155)

 

 

 

 

 

 

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